Undergraduate Academic Programs / Departments / Courses

95 Veterinary Medicine

http://upei.ca/avc

ACADEMIC REQUIREMENTS—DVM

REGULATIONS
Course Load and Course Prerequisites
Except in rare circumstances, each student will take a full course load each year. Students must pass prerequisite courses prior to enrolling in courses which require a listed prerequisite.

Materials in Exams
No materials of any kind, other than pencils and pens, may be brought into an examination room without explicit permission of the course coordinator.

Pass-Fail Option
The pass-fail option for courses (Academic Regulation 10c) will apply in the DVM Program only in certain specified courses at the recommendation of the course coordinator and upon approval of the AVC Curriculum Committee and AVC Dean’s Council.

Grading in Year 4

Internal and external courses (rotations) in year 4 are graded according to the following 3-point scale:
Passing Performance – achieves entry-level competency.
Marginal Performance – approaches entry-level competency.
Failing Performance – does not achieve entry-level competency.

Challenge for Credit by Examination
Challenge for credit by examination is normally not permitted in the DVM Program. Students who are able to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the relevant chair that they have previously taken an equivalent course at the Atlantic Veterinary College, may challenge for credit by examination as outlined in Academic Regulation 15.

Advancement and Probation
Years 1 – 3
In Years 1 – 3, student success is measured by both course grades and semester weighted averages. In order to advance to the next semester a student must:

1. achieve a grade of at least 50% in all courses taken for credit, regardless of the total number of credits taken. In any multicomponent course a passing grade will be assigned only if each component identified by the course coordinator (e.g., laboratory and didactic sections) has been successfully completed.
2. achieve a weighted average of at least 65%. However, a student with a weighted average of at least 55% but under 65% in first semester of year 1, and at least 60% but under 65% in all other semesters, will be placed on academic probation and allowed to advance.

NOTE: Weighted averages are not rounded up. The following criteria will apply to a student on academic probation:

a. the student will be permitted only one probationary period (up to a maximum duration of 2 semesters) in the DVM program.

b. failure to achieve a weighted average of at least 65% by the end of the probationary period will result in academic dismissal.

c. return to a weighted average of under 65% after coming off probation will result in academic dismissal.

d. except with permission of the Dean, or designate, a student cannot advance to year 4 without a weighted average of at least 65%.

Year 4
In Year 4 student success is measured by both clinical rotation grades and programmatic outcomes tracked across rotations.

1. Regarding clinical rotation grades:
a. A student must achieve a “Passing Performance” in all rotations taken for credit regardless of the total number of credits taken. A student with a “Marginal Performance” in one 3 week rotation, or in multiple rotations equalling 3 weeks, will receive written notification of the academic regulations pertaining to “Marginal Performance” but will be allowed to advance.
b. A student with a “Marginal Performance” in a second 3 week rotation, or in multiple rotations equalling 6 weeks, must develop and execute a remediation plan to address noted deficiencies. Once the plan is approved by the Associate Dean Academic and Student Affairs, the student will be allowed to advance.
c. A student with a “Marginal Performance” in a third 3 week rotation, or in multiple rotations equalling 9 weeks, will be academically dismissed from the program.
d. A student with a “Failing Performance” in a rotation will be required to successfully repeat the failed rotation or complete an equivalent alternative experience (approved by the course coordinator of the failed rotation and Associate Dean Academic and Student Affairs). The performance assessment attained in the repeated rotation will be recorded on the student’s transcript. A student who is unsuccessful when repeating the rotation will be academically dismissed from the program.
e. A student with a “Failing Performance” in a second rotation, after successfully repeating a first failed rotation, will be academically dismissed from the program.

2. Regarding programmatic outcomes:
a. A student must consistently attain ratings of “Competent” or better for all criteria on the Evaluation of Student Performance in all rotations taken for credit regardless of the total number of credits taken. A student with a rating of “Marginal” on a single criterion, despite receiving an overall grade of “Passing Performance”, will be allowed to advance.
b. A student with a rating of “Marginal” on the same criterion on two different rotations, despite receiving an overall grade of “Passing Performance,” will receive written notification of the academic regulations pertaining to “Marginal” ratings but will be allowed to advance.
c. A student with a rating of “Marginal” on the same criterion on a third rotation, despite receiving an overall grade of “Passing Performance,” must develop and execute a remediation plan to address deficiencies on future rotations or undergo reassessment of the deficient criterion. The decision regarding whether a student may remediate the criterion on a future rotation or be required to undergo reassessment will be made collaboratively by the course coordinators of the eight core rotations and the Associate Dean Academic and Student Affairs. Reassessment of the deficient criterion may involve written and/or oral presentation of clinical cases, demonstration of specific clinical skills, or a combination of multiple formats. The reassessment activity/assignment will be designed, administered and evaluated by an independent faculty member. The student must achieve a rating of at least “Competent” on the reassessment activity/assignment in order to be considered to have achieved the criterion in question.
d. A student achieving a rating of “Marginal” after reassessment of a deficient criterion will be provided with further time and mentoring and will be reassessed a second and, if necessary, a third time. A student who fails to achieve a rating of “Competent” on a particular criterion after three reassessment activities/assignments will be academically dismissed from the program.
e. A student with a rating of “Marginal” on the same criterion on a fourth rotation, despite receiving an overall grade of “Passing Performance,” and after undergoing the remediation process outlined in c. above, will be academically dismissed from the program.

Academic Dismissal
1. The following will result in academic dismissal:
a. failure to achieve a grade of 50% in any course taken for credit.
b. failure to achieve a weighted average of: (i) at least 55% in semester 1 of year 1, and (ii) at least 60% in any semester (other than semester 1 of year 1) in years 1-3.
c. failure to achieve a weighted average of at least 65% by the end of a probationary period in year 1-3 or return to a weighted average of under 65% after coming off probation in years 1-3.
d. “Failing Performance” in a single rotation that is not successfully repeated in year 4.
e. “Failing Performance” in a second rotation after successfully repeating a first failed rotation in year 4.
f. receive 9 or more rotation credit hours of a “Marginal Performance” in year 4.
g. receive a “Marginal” rating after three reassessment activities for the same Evaluation of Student Performance criterion in year 4.
h. receive a “Marginal” rating for the same Evaluation of Student Performance criterion on a fourth rotation after successfully remediating that criterion in year 4.

Petition for Readmission
1. Dismissed students may petition the Dean for readmission to the program. Dismissed students who are successful in their petition for readmission in years 1 – 3 will normally be required to:

a. repeat all courses in the semester in question if dismissed for failing one or more courses.
b. repeat all courses in the academic year in question if dismissed for failing to attain a weighted average of at least 60% in years 1 – 3.
c. re-enter the program at the beginning of the academic year in which they were first placed on probation if dismissed for failing to achieve the required weighted average of at least 65% at the end of a two semester probationary period.

2. Dismissed students who are successful in their petition for readmission in year 4 will normally be required to repeat year 4.

SUPPLEMENTAL EXAMINATION
A supplemental examination provides an opportunity for a student who failed a course to be re-examined in that course.

With the exclusion of certain specified courses noted in course syllabi a student who fails a course in years 1 – 3 of the DVM program will be granted a supplemental examination if the following criteria are met:

a. a student will be granted only two (2) supplemental examinations in the DVM program.
b. to be eligible for a supplemental examination the overall course grade, including performance in the final examination, must be at least 40%.
c. the maximum grade attainable in a course or course component (as specified by the course coordinator) in which a supplemental examination is written shall be 50%.
d. if the maximum grade of 50%, attainable in a course in which a supplemental examination is written, contributes to a weighted average that will allow the student to remain in the program.

The scope of the supplemental examination is at the discretion of the course coordinator and will be communicated to the student in advance. In order to pass the supplemental examination, the student must achieve a grade of at least 60% in that exam.

A student who fails a course in semester 1, and is granted a supplemental examination, will normally be required to write the examination before being permitted to continue with courses in semester 2 of the DVM program. A student who fails a course in semester 2 of the DVM program, and is granted a supplemental examination, will normally be expected to write the examination no later than the end of the third week of May.

Supplemental examinations are not offered in the following courses:

ATTENDANCE POLICY
Lectures and Laboratories
Student attendance at didactic lectures and laboratories is strongly encouraged but not mandated. Individual course coordinators may choose to make attendance mandatory for a particular course or course component, and points may be assigned based on attendance. If attendance at didactic lectures or laboratories is required for an individual course, it must be specified in the course outline. Submission of a “Pre-Clinical Absence Request” form is not required for missed lectures or laboratories, unless mandated by a particular course coordinator.

Assessments
1. Student attendance at scheduled quizzes, in-class or in-lab graded learning experiences, and midterm and final examinations is required. Permission to make-up missed work involving any of these will be granted for excused absences only. Excused absences may be planned or unplanned. In the event of an excused absence, the instructor may provide a make-up assignment or examination that is different from the one given during regularly scheduled class time.

2. Unplanned absences are due to unavoidable, unpredictable circumstances and include illness, family emergency, or death in the family. The student should follow the procedure below for requesting an excused absence. The student is responsible for communicating with the course coordinator(s) to make arrangements for making up missed work. In emergency situations, the Associate Dean of Academic and Student Affairs may be contacted to assist with these arrangements.

a. If the student is able, he/she should complete a “Pre-Clinical Absence Request” form before the day of missed work and submit it to the Office of Academic and Student Affairs. If this is not possible, the student should contact the Office by phone at 902-894-2827, or email (avc-acad-stu@upei.ca) as soon as possible. The Office will contact the necessary course coordinator(s) to notify them of the student’s absence. In the case of illness, a doctor’s certificate may also be required at the discretion of the Associate Dean of Academic and Student Affairs.

3. Planned absences may be excused when they are for legitimate reasons and when the appropriate procedure for requesting permission has been followed. Legitimate reasons for planned absences include attendance at a scientific meeting where the student is making a scholarly presentation, receiving an award, or representing the AVC in an officially approved capacity; or in observance of a religious holiday. The student should follow the procedure below for requesting an excused absence. If a planned absence is excused, the student is responsible for communicating with the course coordinator(s) to make arrangements for making up missed work.

a. Adequate documentation detailing the reason for the absence must be provided and a “Pre-Clinical Absence Request” form must be submitted to the Office of Academic and Student Affairs within the first three weeks of the semester and at least four weeks prior to the planned absence. Students will be notified of the decision regarding their request by the Office of the Academic and Student Affairs. Students should not schedule travel without prior approval and incurred travel expenses do not in themselves warrant an excused absence.

4. Absences not falling into one of the above categories will be considered on a case-by-case basis according to their merit. Students should follow the procedure outlined above for requesting an excused absence. If the absence is excused, the student is responsible for communicating with the course coordinator(s) to make arrangements for making up missed work.

Consequences of Unexcused Absences
-In the event that a quiz, in-class or in-lab graded assignment, or midterm examination is missed and the absence was unexcused, the student will be assigned a grade of zero for the missed work. In the case of multiple absences, the student may be withdrawn from the course and assigned a grade of F.
-In the case of missed final examinations Academic Regulations 13b (Special Examinations and Missed Final Examinations), and 10e (Incomplete Courses) in the UPEI calendar apply.

Clinical Rotations
1. Attendance in clinical rotations is mandatory. In total, eight personal days are allowed during the fourth year. Examples of personal days include, but are not limited to, job interviews, personal or family illness, attendance at scientific meetings, etc.

2. All absences must be excused by the rotation coordinator and duty clinician.

3. In all cases of missed rotation days, students must complete a “Clinical Rotation Absence Request” form and have it signed by the rotation coordinator and, if applicable, the duty clinician. A copy of the form will be forwarded by the rotation coordinator to the Office of Academic and Student Affairs so that a central record of absences can be kept.

4. Make-up of missed clinical experiences is normally not required for absences of up to 15% of the rotation duration. The Associate Dean of Academic and Student Affairs will notify rotation coordinators of total absences in excess of eight personal days and coordinate make-up of missed clinical experiences.

IMMUNIZATION
The Atlantic Veterinary College has a mandatory rabies vaccination policy which requires that all students be vaccinated or sign a waiver declining vaccination. The Rabies vaccination program is administered by the UPEI Health Centre on behalf of the Atlantic Veterinary College. The Atlantic Veterinary College shares the cost of the Rabies vaccination program with its students.

COURSE SUPPLIES
Students requiring course materials or supplies over and above what is normally provided by the Atlantic Veterinary College may be responsible for the additional costs that are incurred.

ANIMAL USE
The humane use of animals in teaching is a normal part of the Atlantic Veterinary College (AVC) curriculum and a necessary component of the veterinary medical education. Examples of such uses include, but are not limited to, dissection of cadavers in Macroscopic Anatomy; post-mortem examination of animals in the Diagnostic Laboratory; handling, restraint, and physical examination of animals in Clinical Orientation; and performing surgery and invasive diagnostic procedures in Medical and Surgical Exercises laboratories. All teaching animal use at the Atlantic Veterinary College is approved by the UPEI Animal Care Committee and conforms to the principles and guidelines of the Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC).

DOCTOR OF VETERINARY MEDICINE PROGRAM

First Year
Semester 1 

Weekly Contact
 
Course Lecture Lab Credit
VBS 1010 Macroscopic Anatomy I 2 5 4
VBS 1110 Microscopic Anatomy I 1 2 2
VBS 1210 Physiology I 2 0 2
VBS 1410 Integration of Structure and Function I 0 5 2
VBS 1040 Principles of Veterinary Research 1 0 1
VBS 1050 Professional Foundations I 1 2 2
VBS 1030 Animal Behaviour and Welfare 2 0 2
VHM 1110 Animal Production Systems 2 1 2
VPM 1110 Veterinary Immunology 2 1 2
13 16 19

Semester 2 

Weekly Contact
 
Course Lecture Lab Credit
VBS 1020 Macroscopic Anatomy II 2 5 4
VBS 1120 Microscopic Anatomy II 1.4 1.7 3
VBS 1220 Physiology II 2 0 2
VBS 1420 Integration of Structure and Function II 0 3 1
VHM 1120 Principles of Veterinary Epidemiology 2 1 2
VHM 1130 Clinical Skills I 0 3 1
VPM 1220 Parasitology 2 2 3
VPM 1520 General  Pathology 2 2 3
11.4 17.7 19

Second Year
Semester 3

  Weekly Contact
 
Course Lecture Lab Credit
VBS 2130 Veterinary Pharmacology I 3 1 3
VCA 2520 Diagnostic Imaging I 1 1 1
VHM 2310 Veterinary Public Health 2 0 2
VHM 2410 Evidence-based Veterinary Medicine 1 1 1
VHM 2510 Clinical Skills II 1 2 1
VPM 2010 Bacteriology and Mycology 3 2 4
VPM 2110 Virology 2 2 3
VPM 2210 Systemic Pathology I 2 2 3
VPM 2020 Professional Foundations II 1 2 2
16 13 20

Semester 4 

Weekly Contact
 
Course Lecture Lab Credit
VBS 2140 Veterinary Pharmacology II 1 1 1
VBS 2150 Veterinary Toxicology 2 1 2
VCA 2140 Diagnostic Imaging II 1 1 1
VCA 2120 Principles of Medicine 2 0 2
VCA 2310 Principles of Surgery 1.5 0 1.5
VCA 241 Principles of Anaesthesiology 1.5 0 1.5
VCA 2150 Small Animal Primary Care Practice I 2 0 2
VCA 2130 Clinical Skills III 0 4 1
VHM 2220 Principles of Theriogenology 1 0 1
VPM 2220 Systemic Pathology II 2 2 3
VPM 2420 Clinical  Pathology 2 2 3
VPM 2620 Aquaculture and Fish Health 1 0 1
17 11 20

THE THIRD YEAR
The third year of the DVM program consists of core and elective courses. Students are required to take all of the core courses and at least 16 credit hours of elective courses. The majority of elective courses are delivered in 5-week modules (M) in semester 6.  Elective course offerings are subject to change in any academic year.

Third Year
Semester 5

Weekly Contact
 
Core Course Lecture Lab Credit
VCA 3160 Small Animal Primary Care Practice II 1 0 1
VCA 3150 Small Animal Medicine 4 0 4
VCA 3170 Small Animal Surgery 4 0 4
VCA 3130 Clinical Skills V 0 2 0
VHM 3220 Food Animal Health and Disease 5 0 5
VHM 3230 Equine Health and Disease 4 0 4
VHM 3540 Clinical Skills IV 0 3 1
VHM 3630 Professional Foundations III 1 0 1
19 5 20

Semester 6 

Core Course Lecture Lab Credit
VCA 3130 Clinical Skills V 0 2 2
VCA 3140 Professional Foundations IV 0 1 0.5
0 3 2.5

 

Third Year Electives
VBS 3110  Comparative Medicine 1.5
VCA 3230  Advanced Large Animal Anesthesiology 1
VCA 3231  Advanced Feline Medicine 1
VCA 3232  Advanced Small Animal Cardiology   1
VCA 3233  Advanced Small Animal Medicine for
General Practice
1
VCA 3234  Advanced Small Animal Medicine for
General Practice II
1
VCA 3235  Advanced Small Animal Surgery 1
VCA 3236  Applied Client Communication 1
VCA 3240  Advanced Small Animal Anesthesiology 1
VCA 3510  Introduction to Exotic Pet Medicine 1
VCA 3520 Introduction to Zoo, Wildlife and
Aquatic Animal Medicine
1
VCA 3522  Clinical Nutrition for Small Animal
General Practice
1
VCA 3524  Decision-Making in Small Animal
General Practice
0.5
VCA 3612  Spectrum of Care in Small Animal
General Practice
1
VCA 3615  Advanced Small Animal Neurology 0.5
VCA 3617  Advanced Small Animal Oncology 0.5
VCA 3619  Advanced Small Animal Ophthalmology 0.5
VCA 3621  Advanced Small Animal Pain
Management
1
VCA 3623  Small Animal Behavioural Medicine I 1
VCA 3625  Small Animal Behavioural Medicine II 1
VCA 3825 Small Animal Emergency and
Critical Care
1
VHM 3250  Production and Infectious Diseases
of Food Animals
0.5
VHM 3260  Bovine Herd Management and
Nutrition
0.5
VHM 3270  Advanced Bovine Mastitis and
Quality Milk  Production
1
VHM 3280  Current Issues in Bovine Lameness,
Welfare and Cow Comfort
0.5
VHM 3290 Topics in Poultry and Swine 0.5
VHM 3330  Topics in Small Ruminants 1
VHM 3340  Health of Aquatic Animals
and the Ecosystem
1
VHM 3350 Topics in Advanced Bovine
Theriogenology
0.5
VHM 3360  Topics in Advanced Equine
Theriogenology
0.5
VHM 3370  Advanced Equine Theriogenology
Techniques
0.5
VHM 3380  Advanced Bovine Theriogenology
Techniques
0.5
VHM 3390  Topics in Advanced Equine
Medicine
1
VHM 3430  Advanced Equine Medicine
Techniques
0.5
VHM 3440  Equine Preventative Medicine 0.5
VHM 3450 Food Animal Anaesthesia and Surgery 0.5
VHM 3460  Techniques in Food Animal
Anaesthesia and Surgery
0.5
VHM 3470  Equine Anaesthesia, Surgery
and Lameness
1.5
VHM 3480  Techniques in Equine
Anaesthesia and Surgery
0.5
VHM 3510  Techniques in the Evaluation
of Equine Musculoskeletal Diseases
0.5
VHM 3520  Principles of Integrative Medicine 1
VPM 3612 Practical Techniques in Fish Health 0.5

THE FOURTH YEAR
The fourth year of the DVM program consists of at least 41 semester-hours of credit comprising;
-one 2-semester-hour didactic course (VHM 4110)
-23 semester-hours (23 weeks) of core clinical rotations
-at least 16 semester-hours (16 weeks) of elective clinical rotations

Fourth Year
Semester 7 or 8

Weekly Contact
Core Course  Lecture  Lab  Credit
VHM 4110 Clinical Conference 0 2 2

Clinical rotations in Fourth Year must consist of at least 39 semester-hours of credit selected from among approved one-to three-credit-hour core and elective rotations. Fourth-year rotations require a minimum time commitment of 28 hours per week of each student, and emergency and out-of-hours duties may be required. Normally, one week of fourth-year rotation experience equates to one semester-hour of credit.

Fourth-year rotation selections comprising the required 39 semester-hours of credit must meet the following criteria:

All students must take a core consisting of 23 semester-hours (weeks) of internal rotations as follows:
a. Clinics in Radiology (VCA 4400)—3 weeks
b. Clinics in Anaesthesiology (VCA 4000) —3 weeks
c. Clinics in Companion Animal Medicine (VCA 4100)—3 weeks
d. Clinics in Companion Animal Surgery (VCA 4300)—3 weeks
e. Community Practice (VCA 4340)—3 weeks
f. Clinics in Large Animal Medicine and Surgery (VHM 4600)—3 weeks
g. Food Animal Health Management (VHM 4230)—2 weeks
h. Diagnostic Services (VPM 4500)—3 weeks

-27 semester-hours of credit must consist of internal rotations offered by the AVC.
-6 semester-hours of credit may consist of internal rotations offered by the AVC and/or external clinical experiences in institutional/specialist practices (VBS 4900, VCA 4900, VHM 4900, VPM 4900),
-6 semester-hours of credit may consist of internal rotations offered by the AVC, and/or external clinical experiences in institutional/specialist practices (VBS 4900, VCA 4900, VHM 4900, VPM 4900), and/or external clinical experiences in general private practice (VCA 4940, VHM 4940).

Students are required to select elective rotations from the following list; however, elective offerings are subject to change in any academic year.

VBS 4389 Lab Animal Theriogenology
VBS 4390 Large Animal Applied Clinical Anatomy
VBS 4400 Exotic and Laboratory Animal Medicine
VBS 4900 External Clinical Experience-Institutional or Specialist Practice
VBS 4950 Special Topics in Biomedical Sciences
VCA 4020 Clinics in Anaesthesiology II
VCA 4200 Clinics in Companion Animal Medicine II
VCA 4220 Clinical Nutrition in Companion Animals
VCA 4320 Clinics in Companion Animal Surgery II
VCA 4325 Clinics in Companion Animal Cardiology II
VCA 4040 Clinics in Companion Animal Oncology
VCA 4050  Community Practice II
VCA 4600 Clinics in Dermatology
VCA 4750 Client Communications
VCA 4800 Clinics in Companion Animal Cardiology
VCA 4810 Zoo, Exotic Animal and Wildlife Medicine
VCA 4820 Clinics in Ophthalmology
VCA 4900 External Clinical Experience-Institutional or Specialist Practice
VCA 4940 External Clinical Experience-General Private Practice
VCA 4950 Special Topics in Companion Animals
VHM 4020 Applied Epidemiology
VHM 4030 Short Course in Applied Epidemiology
VHM 4040 Aquaculture Health Management I
VHM 4050 Aquaculture Health Management II
VHM 4060 Topics in Regulatory Veterinary Epidemiology
VHM 4070 Production Health of Shrimp-Thailand
VHM 4080 Clinics in Ruminant Medicine & Surgery – University of Montreal
VHM 4130 Fish Health
VHM 4140 Small Animal Theriogenology
VHM 4150 Clinics in Bovine Theriogenology
VHM 4160 Veterinary Acupuncture – Small Animal
VHM 4310 Clinics in Farm Service – Ruminants and Swine I
VHM 4320 Clinics in Farm Service—Dairy
VHM 4340 Ecosystem Health
VHM 4410 Clinics in Farm Service—Ruminants and Swine II
VHM 4430 Clinics in Farm Service—Feedlot Management
VHM 4450 Clinics in Farm Service—Ruminant Nutrition
VHM 4460 Clinics in Farm Service—Ruminant Mastitis
VHM 4470 Clinics in Farm Service—Ruminant Production Record Analysis
VHM 4480 Clinics in Farm Service—Ruminant Reproduction
VHM 4490 Clinics in Farm Service—Cow/Calf Management
VHM 4550 Clinics in Farm Service I
VHM 4560 Clinics in Farm Service II
VHM 4570 Clinics in Equine Sports Medicine I
VHM 4580 Clinics in Equine Sports Medicine II
VHM 4590 Clinics in Equine Ambulatory and Reproductive Services
VHM 4610 Clinics in Large Animal Medicine & Surgery II
VHM 4670 Swine Health Monitoring
VHM 4680 International Small Holder Dairy Health Management
VHM 4800 Clinics in Regulatory Medicine
VHM 4840 Veterinary Chiropractic Techniques
VHM 4900 External Clinical Experience-Institutional or Specialist Practice
VHM 4920 Advanced Equine Dentistry and Health Care
VHM 4940 External Clinical Experience—General Private Practice
VHM 4950 Special Topics in Health Management
VPM 4100 International Veterinary Medicine
VPM 4120 Diagnostic Veterinary Virology
VPM 4130 Wildlife Health
VPM 4180 Chinook Project
VPM 4210 Foreign Animal Diseases
VPM 4530 Diseases of Poultry
VPM 4600 Morphologic Pathology
VPM 4900 External Clinical Experience—Institutional or Specialist Practice
VPM 4950 Special Topics in Pathology and Microbiology

Biomedical Sciences

http://upei.ca/biomedical

Biomedical Faculty
John Burka, Professor Emeritus
Amreek Singh, Professor Emeritus
Jonathan Spears, Associate Professor, Chair
Luis A. Bate, Professor
Susan D. Dawson, Professor
Spencer J. Greenwood, Professor
Collins Kamunde, Professor
Russell Kerr, Professor
R. Andrew Tasker, Professor
Michael R. van den Heuvel, Professor
William Whelan, Professor
Glenda M. Wright, Professor
Sunny Hartwig, Associate Professor
Sandra McConkey, Associate Professor
Tammy Muirhead, Associate Professor
Paul Bernard, Assistant Professor
Adam Johnston, Assistant Professor
Fraser Clark, Adjunct Professor
Dounia Daoud, Adjunct Professor
Daphne Gill, Adjunct Professor
Brad Haltli, Adjunct Professor
Okechukwu Igboeli, Adjunct Professor
Don Stevens, Adjunct Professor
Yanwen Wang, Adjunct Professor

BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES COURSES

VBS 1010 MACROSCOPIC ANATOMY I
This course provides a foundation in macroscopic (gross) anatomy using the dog as the primary dissection model.
PREREQUISITE: First year standing in the DVM program
Two hours of lecture and five hours of laboratory per week

VBS 1020 MACROSCOPIC ANATOMY II
This course presents comparative macroscopic anatomy of the horse and ruminant through dissection.
PREREQUISITE: First year standing in the DVM program
Two hours of lecture and five hours of laboratory per week

VBS 1030 ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR AND WELFARE
This course introduces fundamental principles of animal behaviour and presents an overview of animal welfare concepts relevant to the practice of veterinary medicine.
PREREQUISITE: First year standing in the DVM program
Two hours of lecture per week

VBS 1040 PRINCIPLES OF VETERINARY RESEARCH
This course presents fundamental principles of research methodology for biomedical and clinical applications in veterinary medicine including hypothesis testing and scientific approach, experimental design, dissemination of scientific results, intellectual property and research ethics.
PREREQUISITE: First year standing in the DVM program
One hour of lecture per week

VBS 1050 PROFESSIONAL FOUNDATIONS I
This course introduces essential concepts that form the foundation of a veterinarian’s professional life including development of a professional identity, the roles veterinarians play in society, and development of essential skills. These skills include reflective practice, self-awareness, communication, cultural competence, resilience, and well-being. Current trends in the veterinary profession are also addressed. This course is graded pass/fail.
PREREQUISITE: First year standing in the DVM program
One hour of lecture and two hours of tutorial per week

VBS 1110 MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY I
This course provides an understanding of microscopic organization of basic tissues and various organ systems of domestic animals.
PREREQUISITE: First year standing in the DVM program
One hour of lecture and two hours of laboratory per week

VBS 1120 MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY II
The course provides an understanding of microscopic organization of various organ systems, embryonic development, and congenital anomalies of domestic animals.
PREREQUISITE: First year standing in the DVM program
One hour of lecture and two hours of laboratory in histology every week for the first half of the semester; two or three hours of lecture in embryology every week for the second half of the semester

VBS 1210 PHYSIOLOGY I
This course presents important system, cell and biochemical functions in common domestic species using a systems-based approach.
PREREQUISITE: First year standing in the DVM program
Two hours of lecture per week

VBS 1220 PHYSIOLOGY II
This course continues presentation of important system, cell, and biomedical functions in common domestic species using a systems-based approach.
PREREQUISITE: First year standing in the DVM program
Two hours of lectures per week

VBS 1410 INTEGRATION OF STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION I
This course uses problems from small animal veterinary medicine to integrate concepts from macroscopic and microscopic anatomy and physiology, and develop critical reasoning skills.
PREREQUISITE: First year standing in the DVM program
Five hours of tutorial per week

VBS 1420 INTEGRATION OF STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION II
This course uses problems from large animal veterinary medicine to integrate concepts from macroscopic and microscopic anatomy and physiology, and develop critical reasoning skills.
PREREQUISITE: First year standing in the DVM program
Three hours of tutorial per week

VBS 2120 PATHOPHYSIOLOGY FOR NURSING STUDENTS
This course is an overview of pathophysiological mechanisms of disease states. Concepts and processes of abnormal physiology in various body systems are presented using selected diseases as illustrations. Unique features of child and adult responses are presented.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 1220, Nursing 2030 and Nursing 2130
Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week

VBS 2130 VETERINARY PHARMACOLOGY I
This course introduces basic principles of veterinary pharmacology. Drugs are presented using a systems-based approach and opportunities are provided to apply knowledge in clinical veterinary contexts.
PREREQUISITE: Second year standing in the DVM program
Three hours of lecture and one hour of tutorial per week

VBS 2140 VETERINARY PHARMACOLOGY II
This course continues the presentation of drugs using a systems-based approach and provides opportunities to apply knowledge in clinical veterinary contexts.
PREREQUISITE: Second year standing in the DVM program
One hour of lecture and one hour of tutorial per week

VBS 2150 VETERINARY TOXICOLOGY
This course introduces basic and clinical principles of toxicology. Toxins are presented using a systems-based approach, and opportunities are provided to apply knowledge in clinical veterinary contexts.
PREREQUISITE: Second year standing in the DVM program
Two hours of lecture and one hour of tutorial per week

VBS 2610 DIRECTED STUDIES
This elective course provides an opportunity for students to participate in intensive research and/or clinical experiential learning opportunities under the supervision of a faculty member. In addition to research and clinical skills, students will also develop leadership and communication skills. This course will be graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: Successful completion of year one of the DVM program
Variable 1, 2 or 3 credit hours

VBS 3110 COMPARATIVE MEDICINE
This elective course introduces students to the basic tenets of laboratory animal medicine including ethics of animal use in biomedical research, regulatory requirements (national and international), principles of replacement, reduction, and refinement when designing studies involving animals, animal models of human conditions, animal husbandry, biological safety, and animal welfare. The remainder of the course will be directed towards prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of common clinical disease conditions in traditional and non-traditional laboratory animal species and associated clinical techniques. Comparative aspects of the biology and medicine among species and their relevance to human and veterinary conditions will be addressed. This course will provide the appropriate background for laboratory animal medicine rotations in the clinical year.
Five-week module with four hours of lecture per week

VBS 3610 DIRECTED STUDIES
This elective course provides an opportunity for students to participate in intensive research and/or clinical experiential learning opportunities under the supervision of a faculty member. In addition to research and clinical skills, students will also develop leadership and communication skills. This course will be graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: Successful completion of year two of the DVM program.
Variable 1, 2 or 3 credit hours

VBS 4388 ACUTE WILDLIFE MEDICINE AND CARE
This rotation involves acute care of wildlife cases that present to the Wildlife Service. Students will perform emergency care and stabilization, triage, diagnostic work-up, and medical and surgical intervention of injured and acutely ill wild animals. Developing and ensuring hospitalization husbandry requirements appropriate for the species will also be required as will formulating and conducting rehabilitation plans for the patients.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
One week in duration

VBS 4389 LABORATORY ANIMAL THERIOGENOLOGY
This rotation introduces advanced reproductive techniques commonly performed in laboratory animal medicine. Topics include artificial insemination, embryo transfer and Caesarian-section for rederivation and research manipulations, semen collection and storage, surgical gonadectomy, and hormonal manipulation of the estrous cycle. Reproductive diseases and toxicology of various research animal species will be introduced.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
One week in duration

VBS 4390 LARGE ANIMAL CLINICAL ANATOMY
This rotation is designed to help reinforce knowledge of anatomy and assist in its application to clinical cases. Students attend morning rounds in the large animal hospital, participate in small group discussions, perform dissections in the anatomy lab, discuss clinical cases, and review radiographs. Students will complete online quizzes or assignments to prepare for the following day and each student will research and present a topic on the final day of the rotation.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
One week in duration

VBS 4400 EXOTIC AND LABORATORY ANIMAL MEDICINE
In this course students acquire information about laboratory animal medicine as a career path and discuss the challenges and opportunities facing exotic animal and laboratory animal veterinarians. Students practice animal handling, physical examination, and routine procedures such as blood collection and administration of injections, and become familiar with common diseases of exotic pets and laboratory animals. Regulations and guidelines governing animal research and the role of the veterinarian in ensuring humane methods of experimentation are discussed, as are a variety of issues pertaining to animal facilities management.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
One week in duration

VBS 4710 DIRECTED STUDIES
This elective course provides an opportunity for students to participate in intensive research and/or clinical experiential learning opportunities under the supervision of a faculty
member. In addition to research and clinical skills, students will also develop leadership and communication skills. This course will be graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE:  Successful completion of year three of the DVM program.
Variable 1, 2 or 3 credit hours

VBS 4900 EXTERNAL CLINICAL EXPERIENCE— INSTITUTIONAL OR SPECIALIST PRACTICE
This course provides for external clinical experiences related to the specialties of the Department of Biomedical Sciences not available at UPEI. Students may propose an elective or undertake one already approved by the Department. External clinical experiences are limited to academic institutions, non- academic institutions, and approved private practices, where evaluation of performance is routinely completed. In order for an institution or practice to qualify, certain criteria, as outlined in the Senior Rotation Handbook, must be met. All expenses are the responsibility of the student.
PREREQUISITES: Fourth year standing in the DVM Program; and approval by the department Chair, or the Chair’s designate, and the Associate Dean of Academic Affairs

VBS 4950 SPECIAL TOPICS IN BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES
This course is initiated and offered at the discretion of the Department. Entry to the course, course content, and the conditions under which the course may be offered will be subject to the approval of the Chair of the Department, the AVC Curriculum Committee, and the Dean or designate.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
One to three hours per week

Companion Animals

http://upei.ca/companion

Companion Animals Faculty

Darcy Shaw, Professor Emeritus
Stephanie Hamilton, Associate Professor, Chair
Etienne Côté, Professor
Leigh Lamont, Professor
Lynne O’Sullivan, Professor
Patrick Burns, Associate Professor
Catherine Creighton, Associate Professor
Michelle Evason, Associate Professor
Peter Foley, Associate Professor
Adam Ogilvie, Associate Professor
Emily Bourassi, Assistant Professor
Susan Carr, Assistant Professor
Lara Cusack, Assistant Professor
James Dundas, Assistant Professor
Kate Hoddinott, Assistant Professor
Peter Moak, Assistant Professor
Charlotte Pye, Assistant Professor
Oriana Raab, Assistant Professor
Darcy Shaw, Adjunct Professor
Anne Marie Carey, Lecturer
Stephanie Landry, Lecturer
Kathy Ling, Lecturer
Jennifer MacLean, Lecturer
Michael West, Lecturer

COMPANION ANIMAL COURSES

VCA 2120 PRINCIPLES OF MEDICINE
This course introduces common disease presentations in domestic species, reviews their pathophysiologic basis, and provides a framework for problem-based clinical reasoning.
PREREQUISITE: Second year standing in the DVM program
Two hours of lecture per week

VCA 2130 CLINICAL SKILLS III
This course is a series of clinically-oriented learning experiences focusing on development of basic medical, surgical and anesthetic skills.
PREREQUISITE: Second year standing in the DVM program
Four hours of laboratory per week

VCA 2140 DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING II
This course builds upon previous instruction in diagnostic imaging with a focus on image analysis and interpretation of diseases processes in common domestic species.
PREREQUISITE: Second year standing in the DVM program
One hour of lecture and one hour of tutorial per week

VCA 2150 SMALL ANIMAL PRIMARY CARE PRACTICE I
This course introduces clinical disciplines central to small animal primary care and wellness, including nutrition, behaviour, and dentistry.
PREREQUISITE: Second year standing in the DVM program
Two hours of lecture per week

VCA 2310 PRINCIPLES OF SURGERY
This course introduces the fundamental principles of surgery and surgical management with broad species applications.
PREREQUISITE: Second year standing in the DVM program
1.5 hours of lecture per week
Credit: 1.5

VCA 2410 PRINCIPLES OF ANESTHESIOLOGY
This course introduces the fundamental principles of anesthesia and anesthetic management with broad species applications. Pain management strategies are also emphasized.
PREREQUISITE: Second year standing in the DVM program
1.5 hours of lecture per week
Credit: 1.5

VCA 2520 DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING I
This course presents fundamental principles of veterinary diagnostic imaging, including radiation physics and safety, with an introduction to image analysis and interpretation.
PREREQUISITE: Second year standing in the DVM program
One hour of lecture and one hour of tutorial per week

VCA 2610 DIRECTED STUDIES
This elective course provides an opportunity for students to participate in intensive research and/or clinical experiential learning opportunities under the supervision of a faculty member. In addition to research and clinical skills, students will also develop leadership and communication skills. This course will be graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: Successful completion of year one of the DVM program
Variable 1, 2 or 3 credit hours

VCA 3130 CLINICAL SKILLS V
This two semester course provides opportunities to apply knowledge, practice clinical reasoning, and develop competence in core anesthesia and surgery skills with a small animal focus.
PREREQUISITE: Third year standing in the DVM program
Two to four hours of laboratory or tutorial on alternate weeks

VCA 3140 PROFESSIONAL FOUNDATIONS IV
This course builds on the capacity for reflective practice and on further developing communication and interpersonal skills. Skills related to delivering and receiving feedback will be developed. Opportunities for practice and acquiring competence in client communication skills will be a focus.
PREREQUISITE: Third year standing in the DVM program
Twelve hours of tutorial total for the semester

VCA 3150 SMALL ANIMAL MEDICINE
This course describes the common medical diseases in dogs and cats relevant to the entry level veterinarian engaged in general practice. Disease processes and their diagnosis, treatment and prevention are discussed.
PREREQUISITE: Third year standing in the DVM program
Four hours of lecture per week

VCA 3160 SMALL ANIMAL PRIMARY CARE PRACTICE III
This course introduces students to clinical disciplines central to small animal primary care and wellness, including vaccinology, preventive parasitology, neonatology, gerontology, and elective surgery.
PREREQUISITE: Third year standing in the DVM program
One hour of lecture per week

VCA 3170 SMALL ANIMAL SURGERY
This course describes the common surgical diseases in dogs and cats relevant to the entry level veterinarian engaged in general practice. Disease processes and their diagnosis, treatment and prevention are discussed.
PREREQUISITE: Third year standing in the DVM program
Four hours of lecture per week

VCA 3230 ADVANCED LARGE ANIMAL ANAESTHESIOLOGY
In this elective course, students develop a more detailed knowledge of the principles and techniques used in large animal anesthesia. Students participate in case based discussions centered on the perioperative anesthetic management of large animal patients.
One hour per week (one credit)
Course graded as Pass/Fail
Enrolment is open to third year students.

VCA 3231 ADVANCED FELINE MEDICINE
This elective modular course builds on fundamental concepts covered in the core curriculum but specifically addresses diseases that occur disproportionately more often, or exclusively, in domestic cats. The course will delve more deeply into common feline health issues such as bite wound abscesses, polysystemic infectious diseases, and other disorders introduced in the core curriculum.  Successful completion of the course will prepare students for management of feline-specific diseases and result in greater understanding of species-based differences involving diseases that affect both cats and other species of animals.
PREREQUISITE:  Third year standing in the DVM program
Five-week module with 3 hours of lecture per week

VCA 3232 ADVANCED SMALL ANIMAL CARDIOLOGY
This elective modular course builds on fundamental concepts of small animal cardiology covered in the core curriculum. Through case studies and interactive group discussions of nuanced or complex (but real-world) situations, students will participate in activities that increase their understanding of cardiac-noncardiac interactions such as cardiorenal comorbidities; congenital heart disease recognition and treatment; anesthesia of cardiovascular patients; cardiac emergencies; etc. Successful completion of the course will prepare students for management of small animal cardiology patients in clinical rotations and on day one of practice as a veterinarian.
PREREQUISITE:  Third year standing in the DVM program
Five-week module with 3 hours of lecture per week

VCA 3233 ADVANCED SMALL ANIMAL MEDICINE FOR GENERAL PRACTICE I
This elective modular course builds on fundamental concepts of small animal medicine covered in the core curriculum. The course will delve more deeply into clinical assessment and management of respiratory diseases of dogs and cats as well as common infectious diseases endemic to North America. In addition, emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases of global importance will be highlighted. Students will develop an increased understanding of the clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of the diseases presented.
PREREQUISITE:  Third year standing in the DVM program
Five-week module with 3 hours of lecture per week

VCA 3234 ADVANCED SMALL ANIMAL MEDICINE FOR GENERAL PRACTICE II
This elective modular course builds on fundamental concepts of small animal medicine covered in the core curriculum. The course will delve more deeply into clinical assessment and management of gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases of dogs and cats such as chronic enteropathies, cholangiohepatitis, and chronic active hepatitis; renal disease such as acute kidney injury, chronic renal disease, proteinuria, and renal nutrition; and endocrine disorders such as diabetes mellitus, hyperadrenocorticism, and insulinoma. Students will develop an increased understanding of the clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of the diseases presented.
PREREQUISITE:  Third year standing in the DVM program
Five-week module with 3 hours of lecture per week

VCA 3235 ADVANCED SMALL ANIMAL SURGERY
This elective modular course builds on fundamental concepts of small animal surgery covered in the core curriculum. The course will address the pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of surgical diseases affecting dogs and cats. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms and techniques of more complex conditions as well as those that require specialty surgical care.
PREREQUISITE:  Third year standing in the DVM program
Five-week module with 3 hours of lecture per week

VCA 3236 APPLIED CLIENT COMMUNICATION
This elective modular course builds on fundamentals of interpersonal communications delivered in the core curriculum, including VCA 3140, Professional Foundations IV, in which students will be engaged concurrently. Distinguishing features of this course include use of existing written communications as a basis for exploring why certain client communications are more effective than others; analysis of in-person testimonials involving veterinarians and clients; minimal reliance on emulation or modeling and greater emphasis on errors to avoid; and a fundamentally student-driven approach. Successful completion of the course will contribute to an understanding of how good communications can improve the delivery of veterinary care.
PREREQUISITE:  Third year standing in the DVM program
Five-week module with 3 hours of lecture per week

VCA 3240 ADVANCED SMALL ANIMAL ANAESTHESIOLOGY
In this elective course, students develop a more detailed knowledge of the principles and techniques used in small animal anesthesia. Students participate in case based discussions centered on the perioperative anesthetic management of small animal patients with specific disease processes.
One hour per week (one credit)
Course is graded as Pass/Fail
Enrolment is open to third year students.

VCA 3510 INTRODUCTION TO EXOTIC PET MEDICINE
This elective modular course introduces students to husbandry, clinical anatomy and physiology, fundamental principles of diagnosis and management of the most common diseases in exotic pets (exotic mammals including ferrets, rabbits, and rodents; birds, and reptiles).
Five week module with three hours of lecture per week

VCA 3520 INTRODUCTION TO ZOO, WILDLIFE AND AQUATIC ANIMAL MEDICINE
This elective modular course introduces students to husbandry, clinical anatomy and physiology, and fundamental principles of diagnosis and management of non-domestic free-ranging and captive species (including terrestrial and aquatic species).
Five week module with three hours of lecture per week

VCA 3521 ADVANCED SMALL ANIMAL DERMATOLOGY
This elective modular course builds on fundamental concepts of small animal dermatology covered in the core curriculum. The course will cover dermatologic diseases encountered in general practice including immune mediated diseases, nutritional dermatoses and other miscellaneous disorders. Students will develop an increased understanding of the clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis for each disease presented.
PREREQUISITE: Third year standing in the DVM Program
Five-week module with 2 hours of lecture per week

VCA 3522 CLINICAL NUTRITION FOR SMALL ANIMAL GENERAL PRACTICE
This elective modular course will build on fundamental concepts covered in the core curriculum and assist students in developing the knowledge, confidence and skills necessary to define and address common nutritional needs of cats and dogs and communicate with clients on nutrition-related topics.
PREREQUISITE: Third year standing in the DVM Program
Five-week module with 3 hours of lecture per week

VCA 3524 DECISION-MAKING IN SMALL ANIMAL GENERAL PRACTICE
This elective modular course builds on concepts covered in the core small animal primary care courses. Through interactive, case-based learning, students will develop an approach to common patient presentations encountered in small animal general practice and discuss strategies for managing preventative care appointments, elective surgical and dental procedures, outpatient and inpatient medical cases, emergency cases and non-elective surgical cases. Factors impacting clinical decision-making such as cost of care and client finances; ethical and legal considerations; resource availability including time, staff, equipment and referral services; and client communication strategies will be presented.
PREREQUISITE: Third year standing in the DVM Program
Five-week module with 2 hours of lecture per week

VCA 3612 SPECTRUM OF CARE IN SMALL ANIMAL GENERAL PRACTICE
This elective modular course will build on fundamental concepts introduced in core medicine, surgery, professional foundations, and evidence-based veterinary medicine courses. Through a combination of didactic, case-based, and team-based approaches, students will develop the knowledge, skills and confidence necessary to address the pet health needs of an economically diverse clientele. With an emphasis on clinical reasoning and evidence-based principles, students will identify a range of diagnostic and treatment options that span the full spectrum of care for common clinical conditions in dogs and cats, determine the likelihood of success for various options, and design client communication plans that facilitate informed decision-making.
PREREQUISITE: Third year standing in the DVM Program
Five-week module with 3 hours of lecture per week

VCA 3613 ADVANCED ANESTHESIA AND PAIN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES
This elective modular laboratory course provides advanced exposure to clinical anesthesia and pain management techniques employed in practice. The focus will be on techniques involving dogs and cats that are relevant to the small animal practitioner; however, there may be additional opportunities to perform techniques involving other species such as exotic pets or wildlife.
PREREQUISITE/CO-REQUISITE:  VCA 3240 and VCA 3621
Five-week module with 3 hours of laboratory per week

VCA 3614 ADVANCED SMALL ANIMAL DENTISTRY
This elective modular course builds on fundamental concepts of small animal dentistry covered in the core curriculum. The course will cover oral health, disease, and its treatment in dogs and cats. Students will develop an increased understanding of the clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis for each disease presented.
PREREQUISITE: Third year standing in the DVM Program
Five-week module with 2 hours of lecture per week

VCA 3615 ADVANCED SMALL ANIMAL NEUROLOGY
This elective modular course builds on fundamental concepts of neurology covered in the core curriculum. The course will cover neurologic diseases encountered in general practice including the latest pharmacological and surgical treatments. Students will develop an increased understanding of the clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis for each disease presented.
PREREQUISITE: Third year standing in the DVM Program
Five-week module with 2 hours of lecture per week

VCA 3617 ADVANCED SMALL ANIMAL ONCOLOGY
This elective modular course builds on fundamental concepts of oncology covered in the core curriculum. The course will use a systemic approach to the cancer patient including recognizing symptoms, interpreting radiographic findings, choosing correct staging procedures and formulating a therapeutic plan including the latest pharmacological and surgical treatments. Students will develop an increased understanding of the clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis for each disease presented.
PREREQUISITE: Third year standing in the DVM Program
Five-week module with 2 hours of lecture per week

VCA 3619 ADVANCED SMALL ANIMAL OPHTHALMOLOGY
This elective modular course builds on fundamental concepts of ophthalmology covered in the core curriculum. The course will cover ophthalmic diseases encountered in general practice including the latest pharmacological and surgical treatments. Students will develop an increased understanding of the clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis for each disease presented.
PREREQUISITE: Third year standing in the DVM Program
Five-week module with 2 hours of lecture per week

VCA 3621 ADVANCED SMALL ANIMAL PAIN MANAGEMENT
This elective modular course builds on fundamental small animal pain management concepts covered in the core curriculum. Through a combination of didactic, case-based, and team-based approaches, students will delve more deeply into pain pathophysiology, analgesic pharmacology, and management strategies and techniques for both acute and chronic pain.
PREREQUISITE: Third year standing in the DVM Program
Five-week module with 3 hours of lecture per week

VCA 3623 SMALL ANIMAL BEHAVIOURAL MEDICINE I
This elective modular course builds on fundamental concepts of veterinary behaviour covered in the core curriculum. The course will focus on normal and problem behaviours in dogs and cats.  Students will develop an increased understanding of behavioural medicine and the behaviours presented.
PREREQUISITE: Third year standing in the DVM Program
Five-week module with 3 hours of lecture per week

VCA 3625 SMALL ANIMAL BEHAVIOURAL MEDICINE II
This elective modular course builds on fundamental concepts of veterinary behaviour covered in the core curriculum and Small Animal Behavioural Medicine I. The course will focus on behavioural disorders in the dog. Students will develop an increased understanding of psychopharmacology as well as non-pharmacological and environmental treatments for the disorders presented.
PREREQUISITE:  Third year standing in the DVM Program and successful completion of VCA 3623
Five-week module with 3 hours of lecture per week

VCA 3610 DIRECTED STUDIES
This elective course provides an opportunity for students to participate in intensive research and/or clinical experiential learning opportunities under the supervision of a faculty member. In addition to research and clinical skills, students will also develop leadership and communication skills. This course will be graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: Successful completion of year two of the DVM program.
Variable 1, 2 or 3 credit hours

VCA 3725 PRACTICAL INTERPRETATION IN DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING
This elective modular course builds on the principles taught in the core diagnostic imaging curriculum. Students will apply these principles to both small and large animal radiography cases, including thorax, abdomen and musculoskeletal studies.
PREREQUISITE:  Third year standing in the DVM Program
Five week module with 3 hours of lecture per week

VCA 3825 SMALL ANIMAL EMERGENCY AND CRITICAL CARE
This elective modular course will introduce a practical approach to diagnosis and management of common emergencies encountered in small animal practice. It will build on fundamental concepts of diseases and conditions introduced in the core curriculum including, but not limited to, management of trauma patients; pediatric emergencies; common intoxicants; hematologic and urologic emergencies and resuscitation of the unstable patient. Students will develop an increased understanding of how to triage emergency patients, prioritize diagnostics to be performed on an emergency basis, and treat conditions discussed.
PREREQUISITE: Third year standing in the DVM Program
Five-week module with 3 hours of lecture per week

VCA 4000 CLINICS IN ANAESTHESIOLOGY
This course is a clinical rotation in the Anaesthesia section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. With faculty supervision, students participate in the practice of clinical veterinary anaesthesiology.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM Program
Enrolment is limited
Three weeks in duration

VCA 4020 CLINICS IN ANAESTHESIOLOGY II
In this second rotation through the Anaesthesia Service of the Veterinary Teaching hospital, students develop a more detailed knowledge of the principles and techniques used in clinical veterinary anaesthesia.
PREREQUISITE: VCA 4000
Three weeks clinical contact

VCA 4030 CLINICS IN COMPANION ANIMAL NEUROLOGY
This is a clinical rotation in the neurology service of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. With faculty supervision, students participate in the practice of clinical veterinary neurology.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
Two weeks in duration

VCA 4040 CLINICS IN COMPANION ANIMAL ONCOLOGY
This is a clinical rotation in the oncology service of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. With faculty supervision, students participate in the practice of clinical veterinary oncology.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
Two weeks in duration

VCA 4050 COMMUNITY PRACTICE II
In this second rotation through the small animal Community Practice service of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, students develop a more detailed knowledge of the principles and techniques involved in primary care veterinary practice.
PREREQUISITE: VCA 4340 and fourth year standing in the DVM program
Three weeks in duration

VCA 4100 CLINICS IN COMPANION ANIMAL MEDICINE I
This course is a clinical rotation in the Small Animal Medicine section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. With faculty supervision, students participate in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM Program
Enrolment is limited
Three weeks in duration

VCA 4200 CLINICS IN COMPANION ANIMAL MEDICINE II
In this second rotation through the Small Animal Medicine section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, students develop a more detailed knowledge of the principles and techniques used in Companion Animal Medicine.
PREREQUISITE: VCA 4100
Enrolment is limited
Three weeks in duration

VCA 4220 CLINICAL NUTRITION IN COMPANION ANIMALS
This rotation provides students with an understanding of the role of nutrients in health and disease and the importance of nutrition in clinical practice. Students perform nutritional assessments, develop nutrition support plans, determine nutritional adequacy of commercial and homemade diets, implement preventive and curative dietary strategies for nutrition-sensitive disorders and monitor progression of therapy, develop client communication strategies regarding nutrition, and assist clients in selecting appropriate diets for their pets.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
One week in duration

VCA 4300 CLINICS IN COMPANION ANIMAL SURGERY I
This course is a clinical rotation in the Small Animal Surgery section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. With faculty supervision, students participate in the practice of clinical veterinary surgery.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM Program
Enrolment is limited
Three weeks in duration

VCA 4320 CLINICS IN COMPANION ANIMAL SURGERY II
In this second rotation through the Small Animal Surgery Service of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, students develop a more detailed knowledge of the principles and techniques used in Companion Animal Surgery.
PREREQUISITE: VCA 4300
Enrolment is limited
Three weeks in duration

VCA 4325 CLINICS IN COMPANION ANIMAL CARDIOLOGY II
In this second rotation through the Cardiology Service of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, students develop a more detailed application of knowledge to practical situations: diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases of dogs and cats as the clinical caseload provides to the Cardiology Service.
PREREQUISITE: VCA 4800 and fourth year standing in the DVM program.
One week in duration

VCA 4340 COMMUNITY PRACTICE
This course is a clinical rotation involving the community practice aspects of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Under faculty and staff supervision, senior veterinary students will be responsible for primary care of non-referral/non-emergency medicine and surgery cases.
CO-REQUISITE: Have to be enrolled in the following rotations: VCA 4100 and VCA 4300

VCA 4400 CLINICS IN RADIOLOGY I
This course is a clinical rotation in the Radiology section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students perform and interpret various examinations in diagnostic radiology and special procedures. Some experience in alternative imaging (ultrasound, nuclear scintigraphy) may be gained depending on clinical caseload.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM Program
Enrolment is limited
Three weeks in duration

VCA 4600 CLINICS IN DERMATOLOGY
This course, given in the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, is a clinical rotation in the specialty of dermatology. Students participate in the diagnosis and therapy of diseases involving the skin of companion animals.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM Program
Enrolment is limited
Two weeks in duration

VCA 4620 VETERINARY BEHAVIOURAL MEDICINE
This course is a clinical rotation that builds on fundamental concepts of veterinary behaviour with a focus on dogs and cats. Through didactic lectures, video recordings and direct animal observation, students will become proficient in identification of normal and abnormal behaviours in clinical patients and develop treatment plans for common behavioural disorders involving psychopharmacologic agents as well as non-pharmacologic and environmental interventions.
PREREQUISITE:  Fourth year standing in the DVM program
One week in duration

VCA 4710 DIRECTED STUDIES
This elective course provides an opportunity for students to participate in intensive research and/or clinical experiential learning opportunities under the supervision of a faculty
member. In addition to research and clinical skills, students will also develop leadership and communication skills. This course will be graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE:  Successful completion of year three of the DVM program.
Variable 1, 2 or 3 credit hours

VCA 4750 CLIENT COMMUNICATIONS
This one-week clinical rotation will introduce students to communication theory, the impact of feelings, emotions, and values on communication, and to techniques that will aid in building relationships and eliciting information from clients. Through lectures, role plays, and videotaped real client interactions, students will learn about and practise skills to more effectively communicate with clients.
PREREQUISITE: Successful completion of the third year of the DVM program or permission of the instructor
Semester hours credit: 1

VCA 4800 CLINICS IN COMPANION ANIMAL CARDIOLOGY
This course is a clinical rotation in the cardiology service of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. With faculty supervision, students participate in the practice of clinical veterinary cardiology.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
CO-REQUISITE: VCA 4100
Enrolment is limited
Two weeks in duration

VCA 4810 ZOO, EXOTIC ANIMAL & WILDLIFE MEDICINE
This course is a clinical rotation in the Zoo, Exotic Animal and Wildlife Service of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students will have the opportunity to learn how to handle, examine, and perform the most common clinical procedures on wildlife and exotic pets. Diagnosis and management of the most common diseases seen in exotic pets will be discussed. Elective surgeries may be performed, depending on case availability. A visit to a regional zoo, exotics, or wildlife facility is usually scheduled once during the rotation. Clinical experiences will vary with the caseload.
PREREQUISITE: 4th year standing in the DVM program.
Enrolment is limited.
Two weeks in duration

VCA 4820 CLINICS IN OPHTHALMOLOGY
This is a clinical rotation in the ophthalmology service of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. With faculty supervision, students participate in the practice of clinical veterinary ophthalmology.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM Program
Enrolment is limited
Two weeks in duration

VCA 4900 EXTERNAL CLINICAL EXPERIENCE— INSTITUTIONAL OR SPECIALIST PRACTICE
This course provides a clinical experience that is not available to an individual student at UPEI. This 1-3 credit-hour experience is limited to academic institutions and approved private practices and non-academic institutions where evaluation of performance is routinely completed. In order to qualify as an approved private practice or non-academic institution, certain criteria as outlined in the senior rotation handbook must be met. All expenses incurred are the responsibility of the student.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM Program and approval of the departmental Chair and Associate Dean of Academic Affairs

VCA 4940 EXTERNAL CLINICAL EXPERIENCE— GENERAL PRIVATE PRACTICE
This course provides an opportunity for clinical experience in general or community practice settings. This one- to three- credit-hour experience is limited to private practices that meet certain criteria as outlined in the senior rotation handbook. All expenses incurred are the responsibility of the student.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth-year standing in the DVM program and approval of the departmental Chair and Associate Dean of Academic Affairs

VCA 4950 SPECIAL TOPICS IN COMPANION ANIMALS
This course is initiated and offered at the discretion of the Department. Entry to the course, course content, and the conditions under which the course may be offered will be subject to the approval of the Chair of the Department, the AVC Curriculum Committee, and the Dean or designate.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program One to three hours per week

Health Management

http://healthmgt.upei.ca

Health Management Faculty

Ian Dohoo, Professor Emeritus
Lawrence E. Heider, Professor Emeritus
Timothy Ogilvie, Professor Emeritus
Laurie McDuffee, Professor, Chair
Michael Cockram, Professor
T. Jeffrey Davidson, Professor
Larry Hammell, Professor
Daniel Hurnik, Professor
Gregory Keefe, Professor
J.T. McClure, Professor
Crawford Revie, Professor
Javier Sanchez, Professor
Henrik E. Stryhn, Professor
John VanLeeuwen, Professor
Aimie Doyle, Associate Professor
Yvonne Elce, Associate Professor
Shawn McKenna, Associate Professor
Karen Overall, Associate Professor
Kathryn Proudfoot, Associate Professor
Jennifer Burns Murphy, Assistant Professor
Brownyn Crane, Assistant Professor
Luke Heider, Assistant Professor
Emily John, Assistant Professor
Kathleen MacMillan, Assistant Professor
Martha Mellish, Assistant Professor
Caroline Ritter, Assistant Professor
Sonja Saksida, Assistant Professor
Ben Stoughton, Assistant Professor
Jason Stull, Assistant Professor
Krishna Thakur, Assistant Professor
Christine Baes, Adjunct Professor
Herman Barkema, Adjunct Professor
Ebo Budu-Amoako, Adjunct Professor
Marguerite Cameron, Adjunct Professor
Alejandro Ceballos, Adjunct Professor
Jette Christensen, Adjunct Professor
Eduardo Cobo, Adjunct Professor
Luc Comeau, Adjunct Professor
Alice Crook, Adjunct Professor
Simon Dufour, Adjunct Professor
Andre Dumas, Adjunct Professor
Ibrahim ElSohaby, Adjunct Professor
Ronald Erskine, Adjunct Professor
George Gitau, Adjunct Professor
John Grant, Adjunct Professor
Amanda Hudson, Adjunct Professor
Stewart Johnson, Adjunct Professor
Thomas Landry, Adjunct Professor
David Leger, Adjunct Professor
Jeanne Lofstedt, Adjunct Professor
Mary McNiven, Adjunct Professor
Cordell Neudorf, Adjunct Professor
Rodolfo Nino-Fong, Adjunct Professor
Art Ortenburger, Adjunct Professor
Peter Pettingill, Adjunct Professor
Jacqueline Quail, Adjunct Professor
Chris Riley, Adjunct Professor
Kapil Tahlan, Adjunct Professor
Victor Tsuma, Adjunct Professor
Paul Verugelers, Adjunct Professor
Jeffrey Wichtel, Adjunct Professor

HEALTH MANAGEMENT COURSES

VHM 1110 ANIMAL PRODUCTION SYSTEMS
This course provides an overview of major animal industries and the role played by veterinarians in each of the industries is discussed.
PREREQUISITE: First year standing in the DVM program
Two hours of lecture per week and one to two hours of tutorial on alternate weeks
Credit: 2

VHM 1120 PRINCIPLES OF VETERINARY EPIDEMIOLOGY
This course teaches basic principles and techniques used in veterinary epidemiology with a focus on development of quantitative reasoning skills.
PREREQUISITE: First year standing in the DVM program
Two hours of lecture and one hour of laboratory per week

VHM 1130 CLINICAL SKILLS I
This course is a series of clinically-oriented learning experiences focused on developing competency in basic animal restraint and handling and fundamental clinical skills.
PREREQUISITE: First year standing in the DVM program
Three hours of laboratory per week

VHM 2220 PRINCIPLES OF THERIOGENOLOGY
This course introduces the fundamental principles of theriogenology and reproductive management including a review of reproductive physiology and control of the estrous cycle in common domestic species.
PREREQUISITE: Second year standing in the DVM program
One hour of lecture per week
Credit: 1

VHM 2310 VETERINARY PUBLIC HEALTH
This course discusses the role of the veterinarian, either as a private practitioner or in a regulatory context, as it relates to risk management, zoonoses, food safety, and the interrelationship of animals and the environment.
PREREQUISITE: Second year standing in the DVM program
Two hours of lecture per week

VHM 2410 EVIDENCE-BASED VETERINARY MEDICINE
This course presents a systematic approach to searching, critical reading, and appraisal of scientific literature to enable evidence-based clinical decisions in all areas of veterinary medicine.
PREREQUISITE: Second year standing in the DVM program
One hour of lecture and one hour of tutorial on alternate weeks

VHM 2510 CLINICAL SKILLS II
This course is a series of clinically-oriented learning experiences focusing on development of patient-assessment skills across species.
PREREQUISITE: Second year standing in the DVM program
One hour of lecture and two hours of laboratory per week

VHM 2610 DIRECTED STUDIES
This elective course provides an opportunity for students to participate in intensive research and/or clinical experiential learning opportunities under the supervision of a faculty member. In addition to research and clinical skills, students will also develop leadership and communication skills. This course will be graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: Successful completion of year one of the DVM program
Variable 1, 2 or 3 credit hours

VHM 3220 FOOD ANIMAL HEALTH AND DISEASE
This course presents the common medical, surgical, reproductive, and production limiting diseases of food producing animals relevant to the entry level veterinarian engaged in general practice. Disease processes and their diagnosis, treatment and prevention are discussed.
Five hours of lecture per week

VHM 3230 EQUINE HEALTH AND DISEASE
This course presents the common medical, surgical, and reproductive diseases of horses relevant to the entry level veterinarian engaged in general practice. Disease processes and their diagnosis, treatment and prevention are discussed.
PREREQUISITE: Third year standing in the DVM program
Four hours of lecture per week

VHM 3250 PRODUCTION AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF FOOD ANIMALS
This elective course emphasizes current research on production limiting diseases of cattle. Topics covered are dictated primarily by issues that are current and important to the cattle industry.
Five-week module with two hours of lecture per week
Enrolment is open for third year students

VHM 3260 BOVINE HERD MANAGEMENT AND NUTRITION
This elective course reviews bovine nutrition and record analysis as aids for improving dairy herd productivity. It focuses on management of the herd as a whole and on utilization of data management for decision making. Nutritional management and delivery of feeding programs to optimize production are also discussed.
Five-week module with two hours of lecture per week
Enrolment is open for third year students

VHM 3270 ADVANCED BOVINE MASTITIS AND QUALITY MILK PRODUCTION
This elective course reviews bovine mastitis prevention and control and issues related to milk quality. Topics include herd investigation of mastitis and udder health, management of clinical and subclinical mastitis at the herd level, laboratory testing procedures for evaluation of milk quality, evaluation of milk quality records for trouble shooting of herd problems, and implications of milk quality for the dairy industry.
Five-week module with three hours of lecture per week
Enrolment is open for third year students

VHM 3280 CURRENT ISSUES IN BOVINE LAMENESS, WELFARE AND COW COMFORT
This elective course discusses bovine lameness and welfare. It focuses on prevention of lameness and issues affecting cow comfort. Accurate diagnosis of the causes of lameness, and the economic consequences of lameness and other welfare issues, are emphasized.
Five-week module with two hours of lecture per week
Enrolment is open for third year students

VHM 3290 TOPICS IN POULTRY AND SWINE
This elective course reviews diseases of importance to the poultry and swine industries. Recent challenges to these unique production industries are emphasized.
Five-week module with two hours of lecture per week
Enrolment is open for third year students

VHM 3330 TOPICS IN SMALL RUMINANTS
This elective course emphasizes diseases and techniques unique to small ruminants including sheep, goats, llamas and alpacas. It includes discussion of topics such as nutrition, parasite control, and reproductive management.
Five-week module with three hours of lecture per week
Enrolment is open for third year students

VHM 3340 HEALTH OF AQUATIC FOOD ANIMALS AND THE ECOSYSTEM
This elective course covers three components: lobster health, finfish health and ecosystem health. The lobster component reviews health issues of lobsters with an emphasis on diseases of impounded lobsters and associated risk factors, and offers a laboratory on sampling procedures for diagnostic purposes. The finfish component addresses production and health related diseases in food fish with an emphasis on farmed salmon and coldwater marine fish. Topics include disease surveillance, disease risk factors, health management methods, and interactions between farmed and wild fish populations. The ecosystem health component introduces the principles of ecohealth using current examples from agriculture, aquaculture and wildlife.
Five-week module with three hours of lecture per week
Enrolment is open for third year students

VHM 3350 TOPICS IN ADVANCED BOVINE THERIOGENOLOGY
This elective course emphasizes approaches essential to the successful reproductive management of beef and dairy herds. Topics include investigation of herd reproductive status and problems, control of the estrous cycle and ovulation, embryo transfer and advanced reproductive technologies, induction of abortion and parturition, breeding soundness evaluation of bulls, and common surgeries involving the bovine reproductive tract.
Five-week module with two hours of lecture per week
Enrolment is open for third year students

VHM 3360 TOPICS IN ADVANCED EQUINE THERIOGENOLOGY
This elective course is intended for students who plan to enter equine practice upon graduation. It provides more advanced information on equine reproduction than is available in the core equine course. Broadly speaking, topics include stud management and reproductive disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention.
Five-week module with two hours of lecture per week
Enrolment is open for third year students

VHM 3370 ADVANCED EQUINE THERIOGENOLOGY TECHNIQUES
This elective laboratory course is intended for students who plan to enter equine practice upon graduation. It provides the opportunity to practice basic and more advanced equine reproductive techniques in the mare and stallion.
CO-REQUISITE: VHM 3360
Five-week module with three hours of laboratory per week
Enrolment is limited for third year students
This course is graded pass-fail

VHM 3380 ADVANCED BOVINE THERIOGENOLOGY TECHNIQUES
This elective laboratory course provides advanced exposure to bovine reproductive techniques including evaluation of herd records, diagnostic reproductive techniques and artificial insemination techniques in cows, and evaluation of bulls for breeding soundness.
CO-REQUISITE: VHM 3350
Five-week module with three hours of laboratory per week
Enrolment is limited for third year students

VHM 3390 TOPICS IN ADVANCED EQUINE MEDICINE
This elective course provides an in-depth discussion of equine internal medicine with an emphasis on neonatology and the respiratory, gastrointestinal and central nervous systems. It also covers topics such as metabolic diseases, emerging infectious diseases, cardiology and dermatology.
Five-week module with three two hours tutorials per week
Enrolment is open to third year students

VHM 3430 ADVANCED EQUINE MEDICINE TECHNIQUES
This elective laboratory course provides students with the opportunity to practice a variety of medical procedures in live animals and on cadaver specimens and models. It includes techniques related to evaluation of the gastrointestinal, respiratory and central nervous systems as well as techniques in dentistry, ophthalmology, intravenous catheterization, and catheterization of the urinary bladder.
CO-REQUISITE: VHM 3390
Five-week module with three hours of laboratory per week
Enrolment is limited for third year students
This course is graded pass-fail

VHM 3440 EQUINE PREVENTATIVE MEDICINE
This elective course provides an in-depth review of preventative medicine in the foal and adult horse. It includes discussion of neonatal foal care, nutrition, dentistry, parasite control, biosecurity practices, and vaccination for disease prevention.
Five-week module with two hours of lecture per week
Enrolment is open for third year students

VHM 3450 FOOD ANIMAL ANESTHESIA AND SURGERY
This elective lecture course provides detailed descriptions of the anatomy, physiology, anesthetic protocols, and surgical techniques for common surgical conditions encountered in food animal practice.
Five-week module with two hours of lecture per week
Enrolment is open for third year students

VHM 3460 TECHNIQUES IN FOOD ANIMAL ANESTHESIA AND SURGERY
This elective laboratory course provides an introduction to the psychomotor skills for basic anesthetic and surgical techniques commonly performed in food animals.
CO-REQUISITE: VHM 3450
Five-week module with three hours of laboratory per week
Enrolment is limited for third year students

VHM 3470 EQUINE ANESTHESIA, SURGERY AND LAMENESS
This elective course provides detailed descriptions of the anatomy, physiology, anesthetic protocols, and surgical techniques for common surgical and lameness conditions encountered in equine practice.
Five-week module with four hours of lecture per week
Enrolment is open for third year students

VHM 3480 TECHNIQUES IN EQUINE ANESTHESIA AND SURGERY
This elective laboratory course provides an introduction to the psychomotor skills for basic anesthetic and surgical techniques commonly performed in horses.
CO-REQUISITE: VHM 3470
Five-week module with three hours of laboratory per week
Enrolment is limited for third year students

VHM 3510 TECHNIQUES IN THE EVALUATION OF EQUINE MUSCULOSKELETAL DISEASES
This elective laboratory course provides students with the opportunity to work with horses with a variety of musculoskeletal disorders. Physical diagnosis, diagnostic anesthesia, and imaging studies are assessed in the context of patient history and client concerns.
COREQUISITE: VHM 3470
Five-week module with three hours of laboratory per week
Enrolment is limited for third year students

VHM 3520 PRINCIPLES OF INTEGRATIVE MEDICINE
This elective lecture course provides an introduction to some of the principle methods in integrative medicine, including acupuncture, chiropractic, and other methods.
One hour of lecture per week
Enrolment is open for third year students

VHM 3530 TECHNIQUES OF INTEGRATIVE MEDICINE
This elective laboratory course will provide introduction to the psychomotor skills required in the practice of integrative medicine, including acupuncture, chiropractic, and other methods.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 3520
Five-week module with three hours of laboratory per week
Enrolment is limited for third year students

VHM 3540 CLINICAL SKILLS IV
This course provides opportunities to apply knowledge, practice clinical reasoning, and develop competence in core procedural skills related to medicine, surgery, and reproduction in large and small animals.
PREREQUISITE: Third year standing in the DVM program
Three hours of laboratory per week

VHM 3610 DIRECTED STUDIES
This elective course provides an opportunity for students to participate in intensive research and/or clinical experiential learning opportunities under the supervision of a faculty member. In addition to research and clinical skills, students will also develop leadership and communication skills. This course will be graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: Successful completion of year two of the DVM program.
Variable 1, 2 or 3 credit hours

VHM 3630 PROFESSIONAL FOUNDATIONS III
This course introduces the fundamentals of business, structure of practice, and personal financial planning for veterinary professionals. Areas relevant to the new veterinary graduate are presented including workplace environment issues, facilities and configurations, foundations of customer service and compliance, human resource and leadership issues, marketing and promotion tactics, and the transition to practice ownership. Practice finances and personal income structures, including commission based salaries and self-employed status, will be discussed. This course is graded pass/fail.
PREREQUISITE: Third year standing in the DVM Program
One hour of lecture per week

VHM 4020 APPLIED EPIDEMIOLOGY
This course provides students with the opportunity to work on a population-based problem of clinical relevance and to develop the problem solving, data management and information processing skills necessary to address the problem. The projects will utilize, whenever possible, existing data such as hospital records, APHIN health and production databases and other data sources. Students assemble the necessary data, carry out appropriate analyzes, interpret results and prepare a report of their findings.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM Program
Enrolment is limited
Three weeks in duration

VHM 4030 SHORT COURSE IN APPLIED EPIDEMIOLOGY
This course provides students with the opportunity to work on population-based problems of clinical relevance, and to develop problem solving, data management and information processing skills necessary to address veterinary medicine related problems. The projects utilize, whenever possible, existing data such as hospital records, APHIN and/or ADLIC health and production databases, research data, and other data sources. Students may elect to analyze data that they have obtained from a research or clinical practice experience. With faculty supervision, students assemble the necessary data, carry out appropriate analyzes, interpret results and prepare a report of their findings. This is an abbreviated form of VHM 402, with reduced expectations of students.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
One semester hour of credit
40 hours per week and clinical rotation

VHM 4040 AQUACULTURE HEALTH MANAGEMENT I
This course provides students with an opportunity to work on population-based problems of clinical relevance and to develop the problem-solving, data management, and information processing skills necessary to address current health and production problems of fish farms and lobster holding units.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
One semester hour of credit and clinical rotation

VHM 4050 AQUACULTURE HEALTH MANAGEMENT II
This course provides students with additional opportunity to work independently on population-based problems of clinical relevance and to develop advanced problem-solving, data management, and information processing skills necessary to address current health and production problems of fish farms and lobster holding units.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 4330 or VHM 4040, and permission of the instructor
One semester hour of credit and clinical rotation

VHM 4060 TOPICS IN REGULATORY VETERINARY EPIDEMIOLOGY
This course provides students with the opportunity to work on various topics pertinent to national, regional or local animal disease control programs, including foreign animal disease control and disease monitoring and surveillance. Background information on risk analysis and outbreak investigation is also provided. With faculty supervision, students apply their knowledge of specific animal diseases to scenarios, utilizing the principles discussed.
PREREQUISITE: 4th year standing in the DVM program
One semester hour of credit
40 hours per week and clinical rotation

VHM 4070 PRODUCTION HEALTH OF WARM WATER SHRIMP AND FISH
This rotation is conducted in Thailand under the supervision of an AVC faculty member. Students will develop understanding of the systems for production and health management of shrimp and tropical fish aquaculture in Thailand. Opportunities for application of veterinary skills for disease diagnostics, treatment and prevention strategies will be offered through lectures, laboratory sessions and field trips.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
Two weeks in duration
Two semester hours of credit

VHM 4080 CLINICS IN RUMINANT MEDICINE AND SURGERY – University of Montreal
In this rotation students work with clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions in ruminant animals, primarily dairy cattle, presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at the University of Montreal in Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec. The rotation emphasizes individual animal medicine and surgery. Students provide patient care, actively participate in the diagnostic, treatment, and management decisions concerning their patients, and participate in rounds and discussion topics. Duties include after-hours emergency and treatment crew.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
Two weeks in duration
Two semester hours of credit

VHM 4090 TOPICS IN VETERINARY ACUPUNCTURE-EQUINE
This rotation provides students with the specific clinical features of acupuncture for effective treatment of selected commonly encountered conditions in horses. Lectures and laboratories are focused on chronic pain syndromes, though other diseases may be briefly discussed.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
One week in duration
One semester hour of credit

VHM 4100 CLINICS IN LARGE ANIMAL MEDICINE AND THERIOGENOLOGY
Students are involved in the management of clinical cases in the Veterinary Teaching Hospital and, together with faculty members, also participate in routine visits to dairy herds.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM Program
Enrolment is limited
Three weeks in duration

VHM 4110 CLINICAL CONFERENCE
This is a clinical seminar course with participation by students, house officers, and other professionals. Each student prepares and presents a seminar based on a case-report format with in-depth discussion of the selected disease condition. A manuscript of the case report is required.  This course is graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM Program
Two hours per week

VHM 4120 ANIMAL WELFARE ASSESSMENT AND REGULATION
The course provides a basis for students to (a) use ethical and scientific frameworks to conduct comprehensive animal welfare assessments by utilizing multiple indicators of animal welfare, (b) objectively assess the welfare implications of the management of different species of animals and (c) understand animal welfare regulations and veterinary involvement in the recognition, enforcement and prosecution of welfare cases. This course uses animal welfare scenarios of contrasting management systems, and provides information and practice in dealing with cases of cruelty and neglect.
Two weeks in duration
Two semester hours of credit

VHM 4130 FISH HEALTH
Students will gain experience in the application of veterinary skills to finfish and shellfish species found in aquaculture and public fisheries. Practical experience will include health assessments and disease diagnoses, application of treatment techniques, assessment of biosecurity practices, and development of disease prevention strategies. The course will include farm visits and laboratory testing.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
Enrolment is limited
Three weeks in duration
Three semester hours of credit

VHM 4140 SMALL ANIMAL THERIOGENOLOGY
This rotation focuses on development of knowledge and skills needed to deliver reproductive services in small animal practice. Students will participate in case-based discussions on breeding management, breeding soundness exams, abortion, elective C-section timing, contraception, and advanced reproductive technology. Opportunities will be provided to gain technical skills in ultrasound pregnancy diagnosis, semen collection and freezing, and transcervical insemination.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
One week in duration
One semester hour of credit

VHM 4150 CLINICS IN BOVINE THERIOGENOLOGY
This rotation focuses on development of knowledge and skills needed to deliver reproductive services in bovine practice. Students will gain an advanced understanding of the bovine estrous cycle and its manipulation, analyze reproductive records, and participate in daily case-based discussions. Opportunities will be provided for students to gain skills in palpation and ultrasonography of the reproductive tract, fetal gender determination, embryo recovery and transfer and bull breeding soundness evaluations.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
Three weeks in duration
Three semester hours of credit

VHM 4160 TOPICS IN VETERINARY ACUPUNCTURE – SMALL ANIMAL
This rotation provides students with the specific clinical features of acupuncture for effective treatment of selected commonly encountered conditions in small animals. Lectures and laboratories are focused on chronic pain syndromes, though other diseases may be briefly discussed.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
One week in duration
One semester hour of credit

VHM 4200 CLINICS IN THERIOGENOLOGY— GENERAL
In this course, students gain clinical experience in theriogenology involving farm and companion animals. With faculty supervision, students participate in herd visits and the management of cases that are presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Emergency and out-of-hours duties are required of students enrolled in this course. Students are required to give seminars at the end of the rotation.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM Program
Enrolment is limited
Three weeks in duration

VHM 4220 CLINICS IN THERIOGENOLOGY— EQUINE
In this course, students gain clinical experience in theriogenology with an emphasis on horses. With faculty supervision, students participate in herd visits, the management of a breeding farm, and in cases which are presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Emergency and out-of-hours duties are required of students enrolled in this course. Students are required to give seminars at the end of the rotation.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM Program
Enrolment is limited
Three weeks in duration

VHM 4230 FOOD ANIMAL HEALTH MANAGEMENT
This is a rotation involving Farm Service, epidemiology, and Canadian Food Inspection Agency faculty in the Department of Health Management.  Students will explore contemporary issues relating to food animal practice including regulatory components. There will be a focus on development of problem-solving skills as they relate to herd health management, reproductive management, animal welfare, food safety, and one health aspects of food production.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
Three weeks in duration

VHM 4310 CLINICS IN FARM SERVICE— RUMINANTS AND SWINE I
This course is a clinical rotation in the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. This rotation emphasizes procedures and techniques for the prevention and control of diseases of swine, beef and dairy cattle and small ruminants necessary for food animal practice, including diagnostic techniques, administration of medications through various routes, and health management assessment (rectal palpation). Students participate, with faculty supervision, in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine, and are exposed to the principles of health management of herds and flocks.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
Enrolment is limited
Three weeks in duration

VHM 4320 CLINICS IN FARM SERVICE—DAIRY
This course is a clinical rotation in the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. This rotation emphasizes procedures and techniques for the prevention and control of diseases of dairy cattle. Students participate, with faculty supervision, in both the practice of clinical veterinary medicine and in planning and delivering programs to enhance production in dairy cows.
COREQUISITE: VHM 4310 or VHM 4550
Enrolment is limited
Three weeks in duration

VHM 4340 ECOSYSTEM HEALTH
This course demonstrates the complexity of ecosystem decision making and the role of the veterinarian in the assessment, solution and possible management of ecosystem health issues. The field portion of the course involves an in-depth examination of one or several ecosystems and provides an opportunity to apply principles and methods discussed in lectures and reviewed in the literature.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
Enrolment is limited
Two weeks in duration

VHM 4350 CLINICS IN AMBULATORY SERVICES— EQUINE I
In this course, students work with clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions of horses in an ambulatory setting. The rotation emphasizes individual equine problems. Students participate in the management of field cases under veterinary supervision.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
COREQUISITE: One of VHM 4100, VHM 4400, VHM 4500 or VHM 4600
Enrolment is limited
Three weeks in duration

VHM 4360 CLINICS IN FARM SERVICE—SWINE
This course is a clinical rotation in the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. This rotation emphasizes procedures and techniques for the prevention and control of diseases of swine. Students participate, with faculty supervision, in both the practice of clinical veterinary medicine and in planning and delivering programs to enhance swine production.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
Three weeks in duration

VHM 4370 CLINICS IN AMBULATORY SERVICES— EQUINE II
In this second rotation through the Equine Ambulatory Service of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, students develop a more detailed knowledge of the principles and techniques used in the practice of equine medicine and surgery in an ambulatory setting.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program, VHM 4350, and permission of the instructor
Three weeks in duration
Three semester hours of credit

VHM 4380 ECOSYSTEM HEALTH
This course presents case studies to demonstrate the complexity of ecosystem decision making, and the assessment and management of ecosystem health issues. This field-based course allows in-depth examination of one or several ecosystems and provides an opportunity to apply principles and methods from a broad range of disciplines.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of the instructor
One week in duration
One semester hour of credit

VHM 4400 CLINICS IN LARGE ANIMAL MEDICINE I
A course in which students work with clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of large animals presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students participate, with faculty supervision, in case management (including emergency and out-of-hours duties). Emphasis is placed on the principles and practice of large animal veterinary medicine.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM Program
Enrolment is limited
Three weeks in duration

VHM 4410 CLINICS IN FARM SERVICE— RUMINANTS AND SWINE II
In this second rotation through the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Hospital, students further develop the knowledge and skills required for the practice of clinical veterinary medicine on farm, and expand their ability to apply the principles of health management of herds and flocks such as encountered in VHM 4310.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 4310
Two semester hours of credit
Three weeks in duration

VHM 4430 CLINICS IN FARM SERVICE—FEEDLOT MANAGEMENT
This course is a clinical rotation in the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students participate, with faculty supervision, in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine, and in the planning and delivering of programs to optimize production in cattle. This rotation emphasizes procedures and techniques for the management of health and disease on feedlot operations, including processing of calves in the fall. Students are based at Feedlot Health Management Services, Okotoks, Alberta, for the majority of this rotation, to gain experience on feedlots in Western Canada.
COREQUISITE: VHM 4310 or VHM 4550
Enrolment is limited
Two weeks in duration

VHM 4450 CLINICS IN FARM SERVICE—RUMINANT NUTRITION
This course is a clinical rotation in the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students participate, with faculty supervision, in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine, and in the planning and delivering of programs to optimize production in dairy cows. This rotation emphasizes procedures and techniques for enhancing nutritional management of dairy cattle.
COREQUISITE: VHM 4310 or VHM 4550
Enrolment is limited
One week in duration

VHM 4460 CLINICS IN FARM SERVICE—RUMINANT MASTITIS
This course is a clinical rotation in the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students participate, with faculty supervision, in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine, and in the planning and delivering of programs to optimize production in dairy cows. This rotation emphasizes procedures and techniques for the prevention and control of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle, including: evaluation of milk quality records available for trouble-shooting herd problems; evaluation of milking systems, milking time, and parlour labour efficiency; development of a milk culture service; and development of mastitis pathogen treatment and prevention strategies.
COREQUISITE: VHM 4310
One semester hour of credit
40 hours per week and clinical rotation

VHM 4470 CLINICS IN FARM SERVICE—RUMINANT PRODUCTION RECORD ANALYSIS
This course is a clinical rotation in the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students participate, with faculty supervision, in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine, and in the planning and delivering of programs to optimize production in dairy cows. This rotation emphasizes procedures and techniques for ruminant record analysis, including data acquisition, manipulation within a spreadsheet (including basic statistics and graphics), and report writing in a concise, comprehensive and meaningful report to motivate change.
COREQUISITE: VHM 4310 or VHM 4550
Enrolment is limited
One week in duration

VHM 4480 CLINICS IN FARM SERVICE—RUMINANT REPRODUCTION
This course is a clinical rotation in the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students participate, with faculty supervision, in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine, and in the planning and delivering of programs to optimize production in dairy cows. This rotation emphasizes procedures and techniques for ruminant reproduction, including: pregnancy diagnosis and fetal sexing using ultrasound technology, the analysis of herd level reproductive records, and other advanced techniques.
COREQUISITE: VHM 4310 or VHM 4550
Enrolment is limited
One week in duration

VHM 4490 CLINICS IN FARM SERVICE—COW/CALF MANAGEMENT
This course is a clinical rotation in the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students participate, with faculty supervision, in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine, and in the planning and delivering of programs to optimize production in beef and dairy cows. This rotation emphasizes procedures and techniques for the management of health and disease on cow-calf operations, including processing of cows and calves in the fall.
COREQUISITE: VHM 4310 or VHM 4550
Enrolment is limited
One week in duration

VHM 4500 CLINICS IN LARGE ANIMAL SURGERY I
This course is a clinical rotation in the Large Animal Surgery Section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students provide patient care, participate in ward rounds, and learn the routine procedures of clinical case management and decision making. Supplemental seminars.
Enrolment is limited
Three weeks in duration

VHM 4520 CLINICS IN LARGE ANIMAL SURGERY II
This course provides students with additional clinical experience with surgical diseases of large animals. In addition to case management, students are also provided with seminars and review recent literature in the field.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 4500 or VHM 4600
Enrolment is limited
Three weeks in duration

VHM 4530 CLINICS IN EQUINE AMBULATORY SERVICE I
This course is a clinical rotation in the Equine Ambulatory Service of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital designed to prepare students for general equine practice. Students participate under veterinary supervision in the provision of preventive care as well as in diagnosis and treatment of equine conditions in a field setting.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
Enrolment is limited
Two weeks in duration

VHM 4540 CLINICS IN EQUINE AMBULATORY SERVICES II
In this second rotation through the Equine Ambulatory Service section of the Veterinary Hospital, students further develop the knowledge and skills required for clinical equine practice and expand their ability to diagnose and treat equine conditions as encountered in VHM 4530.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 4530
Two weeks in duration

VHM 4550 CLINICS IN FARM SERVICE I
This course is a clinical rotation in the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. This rotation emphasizes procedures and techniques for the prevention and control of diseases of swine, beef and dairy cattle and small ruminants necessary for food animal practice, including diagnostic techniques, administration of medications through various routes, and health management assessment (rectal palpation). Students participate, with faculty supervision, in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine, and are exposed to the principles of health management of herds and flocks.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
Enrolment is limited
Two weeks in duration

VHM 4560 CLINICS IN FARM SERVICE II
In this second rotation through the Farm Service section of the Veterinary Hospital, students further develop the knowledge and skills required for the practice of clinical veterinary medicine on farm, and expand their ability to apply the principles of health management of herds and flocks such as encountered in VHM 4550.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 4550
Enrolment is limited
Two weeks in duration

VHM 4570 CLINICS IN EQUINE SPORTS MEDICINE I
This course is a clinical rotation in the Equine Ambulatory Service of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital designed to prepare students for equine practice with an emphasis on sports medicine. Students participate under veterinary supervision in investigation of poor performance in the equine athlete as well as in diagnosis and treatment of non-performance related conditions in a field setting.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
Enrolment is limited
Three weeks in duration

VHM 4580 CLINICS IN EQUINE SPORTS MEDICINE II
In this second rotation through the Equine Ambulatory Service section of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, students further develop the knowledge and skills required for equine practice and sports medicine and expand their ability to investigate and treat poor performance in the equine athlete as encountered in VHM 4570.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 4570
Enrolment is limited
Three weeks in duration

VHM 4590 CLINICS IN EQUINE AMBULATORY AND REPRODUCTIVE SERVICES
This course is a clinical rotation in the Equine Ambulatory Service of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital designed to prepare students for equine practice with an emphasis on reproductive services. Students participate under veterinary supervision in herd visits and breeding farm management as well as in diagnosis and treatment of equine conditions in a field setting.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
Enrolment is limited
Three weeks in duration

VHM 4592 CLINICS IN EQUINE AMBULATORY AND REPRODUCTIVE SERVICES II
In this second rotation through the Equine Ambulatory Service of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, students further develop their equine technical and problem-solving skills beyond those attained in VHM 4590 with an emphasis on theriogenology
PREREQUISITE:  Fourth year standing in the DVM program and VHM 4590
Enrollment is limited
Three weeks in duration

VHM 4600 CLINICS IN LARGE ANIMAL MEDICINE AND SURGERY I
This course is a clinical rotation in the Large Animal Surgery and Medicine sections of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, in which students see a variety of large animal cases. Students provide patient care, participate in rounds, share emergency duty, and out-of-hours service, and learn some of the routine procedures of case management and decision making in large animal practice.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
Enrolment is limited
Thirty-five hours in clinics per week

VHM 4610 CLINICS IN LARGE ANIMAL MEDICINE AND SURGERY II
This course provides students with advanced clinical experience with surgical and medical diseases of large animals. Students provide patient care, participate in rounds, share emergency duty, and out-of-hours service, and learn some of the routine procedures of case management and decision making in large animal practice.
PREREQUISITE: 4th year standing in the DVM program and VHM 4600
Enrolment is limited
Thirty-five hours in clinics per week
Three weeks in duration

VHM 4640 CLINICS IN LARGE ANIMAL MEDICINE II-1
In this one credit-hour course, which is an extension of Clinics in Large Animal Medicine I, students work with clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of large animals presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. The student is given more responsibility and expected to perform more actively in decisions involving case management. Duties include emergency and out-of-hours services.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 4400, 4600, 4620, or 4100
One semester hour of credit
Clinical rotation

VHM 4650 CLINICS IN LARGE ANIMAL MEDICINE II-2
In this 2 credit-hour course, which is an extension of Clinics in Large Animal Medicine I, students work with clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of large animals presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. The student is given more responsibility and expected to perform more actively in decisions involving case management. Duties include emergency and out-of-hours services.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 4400, 4600, 4620, or 4100
Two semester hours of credit
Clinical rotation

VHM 4660 CLINICS IN LARGE ANIMAL MEDICINE II-3
In this 3 credit-hour course, which is an extension of Clinics in Large Animal Medicine I, students work with clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of large animals presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. The student is given more responsibility and expected to perform more actively in decisions involving case management. Duties include emergency and out-of-hours services.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 4100, 4200, 4400, 4600, 4620
Enrolment is limited
Three weeks in duration

VHM 4670 SWINE HEALTH MONITORING
This course is a clinical rotation in the Farm Service section of the Department of Health Management. The rotation emphasizes the procedures and techniques for providing health monitoring services for minimal disease swine farms. The student will participate, with faculty supervision, in the practice of clinical veterinary medicine, the evaluation of the health status of the farms, and consultation regarding production and health management, and disease prevention.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in DVM program
One semester hour of credit
40 hours per week and clinical rotation

VHM 4680 INTERNATIONAL SMALL HOLDER DAIRY HEALTH MANAGEMENT
This course provides 3 weeks of practical experience, in the context of an international development project, for veterinary students from AVC on management of small holder dairy farming in Africa, and on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of common animal diseases and dairy management problems encountered in East Africa.
PREREQUISITE: 4th year standing in the DVM Program
Enrolment is limited with a selection process
Three weeks in duration

VHM 4710 DIRECTED STUDIES
This elective course provides an opportunity for students to participate in intensive research and/or clinical experiential learning opportunities under the supervision of a faculty
member. In addition to research and clinical skills, students will also develop leadership and communication skills. This course will be graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE:  Successful completion of year three of the DVM program.
Variable 1, 2 or 3 credit hours

VHM 4800 CLINICS IN REGULATORY MEDICINE
This course prepares students to assume the role of an Accredited Veterinarian. An Accredited Veterinarian is a veterinarian who is authorized under the Health of Animals Act to perform certain duties and functions in support of the National Animal Health Program (e.g. certifying livestock for export, Coggins testing horses). Topics covered include an orientation to the national food inspection system and the federal laboratory system. This course is a prerequisite for Accreditation with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, and hence will be of interest to students considering work in the food animal, equine or regulatory sector.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM Program
Enrolment is limited
One week in duration

VHM 4810 CLINICS IN RUMINANT MEDICINE AND SURGERY ROTATION AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MONTREAL – FACULTY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE (English Rotation)
Students work with clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions in ruminant animals, primarily dairy cattle, presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at the University of Montréal in Saint-Hyacinthe, Qúebec. The rotation emphasizes individual animal medicine and surgery. Students are expected to provide patient care, actively participate in the diagnostic, treatment, and management decisions concerning their patients, and participate in rounds and discussion topics. Duties include after hour emergency and treatment crew. This course is offered as a 3-week rotation. Instruction will be given in English. Partial student support for expenses is sought through industry sponsors.

VHM 4820 VETERINARY ACUPUNCTURE
In this course, students learn the fundamentals of veterinary acupuncture, and apply its principles to the management of patients with special problems. Lectures and laboratories in the science of acupuncture are supplemented with clinical cases admitted to the teaching hospital for treatment. Students are introduced to the basic skills, instrumentation, and examination methods required for successful treatment of animal patients by acupuncture.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
Two weeks in duration

VHM 4840 VETERINARY CHIROPRACTIC
In this course, students learn the fundamentals of veterinary chiropractic medicine and apply its principles to the management of patients with problems of gait, posture, and movement. Lectures and laboratories in the biomechanics and neurophysiology of manipulative therapeutics are supplemented with clinical cases admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Students are introduced to the basic skills, instrumentation, and examination methods required for successful treatment of animal patients by using chiropractic medicine.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
Two weeks in duration

VHM 4860 VETERINARY ACUPUNCTURE (COOPERATIVE SECTION)
In this course, students learn the fundamentals of veterinary acupuncture and apply its principles to the management of patients with special problems. Lectures and laboratories in the science of acupuncture are supplemented with clinical cases admitted to the teaching hospital for treatment. This course includes students from other veterinary colleges and encourages cooperative learning of a specialty discipline not available at other veterinary institutions.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
Enrolment is limited
Three weeks in duration

VHM 4900 EXTERNAL CLINICAL EXPERIENCE— INSTITUTIONAL OR SPECIALIST PRACTICE
This course provides a clinical experience that is not available to an individual student at UPEI. This 1-3 credit-hour experience is limited to CVMA or AVMA accredited faculties of veterinary medicine, other institutions and institutional practices, and approved private practices where evaluation of performance is routinely completed. In order to qualify for credit, the clinical experience taken outside an accredited faculty of veterinary medicine must meet certain criteria as outlined in the Senior Rotation Handbook. All expenses incurred are the responsibility of the student.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program and approval of the departmental Chair and Associate Dean of Academic Affairs

VHM 4920 ADVANCED EQUINE DENTISTRY AND HEALTH CARE
In this course students learn the theory and practice of disease prevention in horses, including vaccination and parasite control programs. Students practice, with faculty supervision, dental care on horses at Island facilities and in the AVC teaching barn. In-depth discussions and reviews of pertinent and timely information take place.
PREREQUISITE: Any ONE of the following courses: VHM 4100, 4200, 4220, 4350, 4400, 4500 or 4600 and permission of the course coordinator
One-week elective rotation in winter semester

VHM 4940 EXTERNAL CLINICAL EXPERIENCE— GENERAL PRIVATE PRACTICE
This course provides an opportunity for clinical experience in general or community practice settings. This 1-3 credit-hour experience is limited to private practices that meet certain criteria as outlined in the senior rotation handbook. All expenses incurred are the responsibility of the student.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program and approval of the departmental Chair and Associate Dean of Academic Affairs

VHM 4950 SPECIAL TOPICS IN HEALTH MANAGEMENT
This course is initiated and offered at the discretion of the Department. Entry to the course, course content, and the conditions under which the course may be offered will be subject to the approval of the Chair of the Department, the AVC Curriculum Committee, and the Dean or designate.
PREREQUISITE: 4th year standing in the DVM program
One to three hours per week

Pathology and Microbiology

http://upei.ca/pathmicro

Pathology and Microbiology Faculty

Pierre-Yves Daoust, Professor Emeritus
Gerald Johnson, Professor Emeritus
Alfonso Lòpez, Professor Emeritus
Frederick S.B. Kibenge, Professor, Chair
Shelley A. Burton, Professor
Mark Fast, Professor
Juan Carlos Rodriquez-Lecompte, Professor
David J. Speare, Professor
Cornelia V. Gilroy, Associate Professor
Chelsea Martin, Associate Professor
Shannon Martinson, Associate Professor
Sandra McConkey, Associate Professor
Melanie Buote, Assistant Professor
Noel Clancey, Assistant Professor
Russell Fraser, Assistant Professor
Megan Jones, Assistant Professor
Andrea Bourque, Adjunct Professor
Laura Bourque, Adjunct Professor
Mark Braceland, Adjunct Professor
Laura Braden, Adjunct Professor
Wenlong Cai, Adjunct Professor
Gary Conboy, Adjunct Professor
Pierre-Yves Daoust, Adjunct Professor
Catherine Graham, Adjunct Professor
David B. Groman, Adjunct Professor
Paul Hanna, Adjunct Professor
Tiago Hori, Adjunct Professor
Molly Kibenge, Adjunct Professor
Alfonso López, Adjunct Professor
Scott McBurney, Adjunct Professor
David McRuer, Adjunct Professor
R.J. Frederick Markham, Adjunct Professor
Anne Muckle, Adjunct Professor
Matthew Rise, Adjunct Professor
Angela Riveroll, Adjunct Professor
Gailene Tobin vandenHeuvel, Adjunct Professor
Yingwei Wang, Adjunct Professor
Shona Whyte, Adjunct Professor
Huimin Xu, Adjunct Professor
Carmencita V. Yason, Adjunct Professor
Jonathan Zuccolo, Adjunct Professor

PATHOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY COURSES

VPM 1110 VETERINARY IMMUNOLOGY
This course describes events occurring during an immune response at the cellular, molecular, and clinical levels, and the role of the response in the prevention and control of infectious disease. Clinical applications relevant to veterinary medicine are discussed.
PREREQUISITE: First year standing in the DVM program
Two hours of lecture and one hour of tutorial per week

VPM 1220 PARASITOLOGY
The course presents principles of the developmental cycles, pathogenesis of infections, immunological responses and epidemiology of animal parasites, including arthropods, protozoa and helminths. Examples from domestic animals, companion animals, wildlife, fish and human hosts will be presented.
Two hours of lecture and two hours of laboratory per week

VPM 1520 GENERAL PATHOLOGY
This course presents the pathologic basis of disease processes in organs and tissues of animals at the subcellular, cellular, and tissue levels.
PREREQUISITE: First year standing in the DVM program
Two hours of lecture and two hours of laboratory per week

VPM 2010 BACTERIOLOGY AND MYCOLOGY
This course presents important bacterial and fungal pathogens of animals and the diseases they cause. Principles of biosafety and biosecurity are introduced and opportunities are provided to apply these principles in the laboratory.
PREREQUISITE: Second year standing in the DVM program
Three hours of lecture and two hours of laboratory per week
Credit: 4

VPM 2020 PROFESSIONAL FOUNDATIONS II
This course builds on Professional Foundations I to engage students in topics that help them understand and develop their professional identity. Core aspects include reflective practice, ethics and moral reasoning, professional values, and leadership. Students will develop communication skills required for effective medical interviews, difficult interactions, and challenging conversations with clients. This course is graded pass/fail.
PREREQUISITE: Second year standing in the DVM program
One hour of lecture and two hours of tutorial per week

VPM 2110 VIROLOGY
This course presents important viral pathogens of animals and offers a theoretical and practical basis for understanding the diseases they cause.
PREREQUISITE: Second year standing in the DVM program
Two hours of lecture and two hours of tutorial per week

VPM 2210 SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY I
This course presents the pathologic basis of animal diseases at the cellular, tissue, and organ levels using a systems-based approach.
PREREQUISITE: Second year standing in the DVM program
Two hours of lecture and two hours of laboratory per week

VPM 2220 SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY II
This course continues to present the pathologic basis of animal diseases at the cellular, tissue, and organ levels using a systems-based approach.
PREREQUISITE: Second year standing in the DVM program
Two hours of lecture and two hours of laboratory per week

VPM 2420 CLINICAL PATHOLOGY
This course presents the principles of veterinary hematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, and cytology, and provides opportunities to develop diagnostic reasoning and technical skills relating to clinical pathology.
PREREQUISITE: Second year standing in the DVM program
Two hours of lecture and two hours of laboratory per week

VPM 2610 DIRECTED STUDIES
This elective course provides an opportunity for students to participate in intensive research and/or clinical experiential learning opportunities under the supervision of a faculty member. In addition to research and clinical skills, students will also develop leadership and communication skills. This course will be graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: Successful completion of year one of the DVM program
Variable 1, 2 or 3 credit hours

VPM 2620 AQUACULTURE AND FISH HEALTH
This course introduces students to all aspects of aquatic veterinary medicine, including aquaculture and pet fish, with a focus on disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment.
PREREQUISITE: Second year standing in the DVM program
One hour of lecture per week
Credit: 1

VPM 3610 DIRECTED STUDIES
This elective course provides an opportunity for students to participate in intensive research and/or clinical experiential learning opportunities under the supervision of a faculty member. In addition to research and clinical skills, students will also develop leadership and communication skills. This course will be graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: Successful completion of year two of the DVM program.
Variable 1, 2 or 3 credit hours

VPM 3612 PRACTICAL TECHNIQUES IN FISH HEALTH
This elective laboratory course provides opportunities for students to learn practical fish health assessment, diagnostic and intervention techniques commonly used by veterinarians in fish health practice. Techniques include water chemistry testing, anaesthesia and non-lethal sample collection, post mortem techniques and diagnostic sample collection, microscopy, preparation and use of water bath treatments, and preparation and use of medicated feeds.
PREREQUISITE:  Third year standing in the DVM program
Five-week module with three hours of laboratory per week

VPM 4100 INTERNATIONAL VETERINARY MEDICINE
This 2-3 credit hour course introduces students to the practice of veterinary medicine in other countries. Students study and experience foreign animal diseases and animal health and management practices in other countries, and learn to appreciate socioeconomic and cultural differences.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program and approval of course Co-ordinator
Three weeks in duration

VPM 4120 DIAGNOSTIC VETERINARY VIROLOGY
This course presents current concepts in virology, including proper procedures for collection, handling and submission of appropriate laboratory specimens, interpretation of laboratory test results, and advanced knowledge of animal viral diseases.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
One week in duration
Credit: 1

VPM 4130 WILDLIFE HEALTH
This rotation is focused on free-living terrestrial and marine mammals and birds. Students will gain an understanding of infectious and parasitic diseases affecting wildlife populations, practice necropsy procedures, and learn the basic principles and tools of wildlife immobilization. Visits to wildlife rehabilitation centres provide an opportunity for hands-on experience.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
Two weeks in duration
Credit: 2

VPM 4180 CHINOOK PROJECT
This rotation is held in a location in Northern Canada with limited access to year-round essential veterinary services. Under the supervision of AVC faculty or qualified designated veterinarians, students participate in surgeries and provide basic medical care for cats, dogs and other animals such as ferrets, birds or rabbits in the local community. Students keep journals of their experiences and, following their return, work with faculty members to transform their work into short creative non-fiction pieces for publication.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
Two weeks in duration
Credit: 2

VPM 4210 FOREIGN ANIMAL DISEASES
In this course students participate in seminars, tutorials and laboratory exercises on the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and control of major infectious diseases of animals in the tropics and/or countries foreign to North America. Slides and videotapes are used and students are expected to acquire up-to-date information on recent or current epidemics and on emerging diseases. Regulatory measures to prevent introduction of such diseases and to control possible outbreaks in non-endemic areas are emphasized.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
Two weeks in duration
Two semester hours of credit

VPM 4500 DIAGNOSTIC SERVICES
This course is a rotation in the laboratories of Diagnostic Services. Students gain practical experience in clinical diagnostics with respect to the application of techniques and the interpretation of results in the areas of pathology, clinical pathology, virology, bacteriology and parasitology.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program (Enrolment is limited)
Three weeks in duration

VPM 4600 MORPHOLOGIC PATHOLOGY
In this course, small groups of students interact directly with pathologists on post-mortem duty. Students gain practical experience in performing necropsies, evaluating histologic slides and establishing a final diagnosis. Emphasis is placed on gross morphologic diagnosis.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program (Enrolment is limited)
Three weeks in duration

VPM 4710 DIRECTED STUDIES
This elective course provides an opportunity for students to participate in intensive research and/or clinical experiential learning opportunities under the supervision of a faculty
member. In addition to research and clinical skills, students will also develop leadership and communication skills. This course will be graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE:  Successful completion of year three of the DVM program.
Variable 1, 2 or 3 credit hours

VPM 4900 EXTERNAL CLINICAL EXPERIENCE—INSTITUTIONAL OR SPECIALIST PRACTICE
This course provides a clinical experience that is not available to an individual student at UPEI. This 1-3 credit-hour experience is limited to academic institutions and non- academic institutions where evaluation of performance is routinely completed. In order to qualify as an approved non-academic institution, certain criteria as outlined in the Senior Rotation handbook must be met. All expenses incurred are the responsibility of the student.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM Program and approval of the departmental Chair and the Associate Dean of Academic Affairs

VPM 4950 SPECIAL TOPICS IN PATHOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY
This course is initiated and offered at the discretion of the Department. Entry to the course, course content, and the conditions under which the course may be offered will be subject to the approval of the Chair of the Department, the AVC Curriculum Committee, and the Dean or designate.
PREREQUISITE: Fourth year standing in the DVM program
One to three hours per week

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