Graduate Programs and Courses

111 Master of Science (Science and Veterinary Medicine)

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine MSc Program http://upei.ca/avc/graduatestudies

Faculty of Science MSc Program http://upei.ca/science/graduatestudies

A) GENERAL STRUCTURE OF THE PROGRAM

The MSc degree of the University of Prince Edward Island requires the demonstration of a reasonable mastery of a concentrated field of study. The latter is attested by the achieving of satisfactory standings in the minimum number of graduate courses required by the respective Faculty, the completion of a research project, and the writing of a thesis based upon the research.

There will be considerable interaction and co-operation among the departments/faculties to provide courses and research facilities to meet the needs of individual students and their research projects.

In addition to the “General Regulations for Graduate Programs,” described above, the following regulations apply specifically to the Master’s degree:

Residency Requirements

Normally, at least two semesters of full-time study in residence at the University must be devoted to the Master’s program if the student is admitted as a regular student. For a regular student admitted to a part-time study program, the residency period is based on the equivalence of three part-time semesters to one full-time semester. A student, admitted as a provisional student requiring two semesters in that category, must spend at least one additional semester as a regular full-time student to meet the residency requirement. Upon completion of the residency requirement the student is then eligible to become a candidate for the MSc degree.

Normally, the thesis must be formally submitted or the program be otherwise complete within 48 months of the completion of the residency requirement. Departure from these normal requirements requires approval from the Graduate Studies Committee.

B) COURSES

Prescribed Studies

The proportion of weight attached to the research and thesis may vary, even within a department/faculty. Accordingly, the number of courses and/or general examinations may correspondingly vary. In no case, however, will the minimum requirements be less than those outlined in the following two paragraphs. For graduate credit, the courses selected must be acceptable to the department/faculty and the Graduate Studies Committee. The candidate must maintain a cumulative average grade of at least a B standing (see Grades in General Regulations section) in the substantive courses outlined below in order to maintain registration in the program.

A department/faculty may require examinations (oral and/or written), from time to time, to evaluate the student’s progress in his/her overall program.

Additional Courses

In addition to these prescribed studies, the candidate may undertake to achieve satisfactory standings in courses supportive of the special discipline. These courses may be at either the undergraduate or the graduate level. The standings obtained in them will not affect the average grade of the prescribed studies.

C) THE THESIS

Research

Normally, the equivalent of at least two full-time semesters must be devoted to research in fulfilment of the thesis requirement. Summers during which research work is actively conducted may be counted as research semester equivalents, even though courses would not normally be offered at that time. In order to avoid undue prolongation of the time required to complete the degree, the research topic should be identified early and approved by the Supervisory Committee. Research involving the use of animals must follow the Guidelines of the Canadian Council on Animal Care.

Thesis

Each candidate for the degree of Master of Science is required to submit a thesis based upon the research conducted under supervision as described above. The thesis must demonstrate the candidate’s capacity for original and independent work, and should include a critical evaluation of work which has previously been done in the field of his or her research. The thesis should emphasize any new conclusions which may be drawn from the candidate’s own research.

General specifications as to paper, format, order, and binding are available from the Office of the Program Administrator.

Procedures

The thesis may be handed in at any time of the year, but candidates must bear in mind the desirability of having the final examination as much in advance of the deadline date for thesis submission as possible. Candidates are advised to inform themselves of the deadlines schedule, a copy of which may be obtained in the Office of the Program Administrator. It is desirable that each candidate initiate discussion about examination dates with the Supervisor early in the final semester.

The candidate should keep in close touch with the Supervisor and the Supervisory Committee, throughout the preparation of the thesis. The final draft of the thesis, after it has been reviewed by all members of the Supervisory Committee, is sent when ready for examination, to the members of the Master’s Examination Committee (see below).

Following the Master’s Examination, the candidate, if successful, arranges for the preparation of the thesis in final form, and for its submission to the Program Administrator (see below). The thesis in final form must include any minor corrections or revisions indicated during the Examination. Approval of the thesis takes the form of a Certificate of Approval, signed by the Examination Committee.

The Master’s Examination

The final oral examination, devoted chiefly to the defence of the thesis, is an examination identified as the Master’s Examination and carried out by the Master’s Examination Committee.

The Department Chair selects the Examination Committee at the request of the Supervisor and is responsible for notifying the Program Administrator of its composition. The Examination is normally open to the public; however, members of the audience may question the candidate only upon invitation of the Chair of the Committee.

The Examination is passed and the thesis approved if there is no more than one negative vote, an abstention being regarded as a negative vote. The report, from the Department Chair to the Program Administrator, records the result as “unsatisfactory” or “satisfactory.” If the result is “unsatisfactory,” the candidate may be given the opportunity by the Master’s Examination Committee of a second attempt. A second “unsatisfactory” result will terminate candidacy at this university.

MSc Program (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine)

The graduate students will register in one of the four academic departments listed below and in one of the designated areas of specialization:

Department of Biomedical Sciences
Animal Behaviour
Physiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology
Cell and Molecular Biology
Neuroscience
Endocrinology

Department of Companion Animals
Anesthesiology
Cardiology
Diagnostic Imaging
Small Animal Medicine
Small Animal Surgery

Department of Health Management
Epidemiology/Health Management
Animal Science and Animal Nutrition
Clinical Sciences
Aquatic Animal Health
Animal Welfare
Biostatistics
Public Health

Department of Pathology and Microbiology
Morphologic Pathology
Wildlife Pathology
Clinical Pathology
Parasitology
Virology
Bacteriology
Public Health
Immunology
Aquatic Animal Health
Biosecurity

Substantive courses are graduate level courses assigned a minimum of two credit hours. Students are required to complete courses totalling a minimum of twelve credit hours. Within this course complement there must be at least four substantive courses and the appropriate departmental Seminar course (one credit). Only one of the substantive courses may be a Directed Studies Course. All students are expected to complete VHM 8010 (Veterinary Biostatistics) and VBS 8030 (Principles of Biomedical Research) unless comparable training has been completed prior to entry into the program.

When a student is required to register in a seminar or colloquium course in more than one semester, the record will show a grade or a designation of “In Progress” for semesters prior to completion of the course and “Pass” or “Fail” for the final semester. With the consent of the Supervisory Committee, and of the instructor and the Department Chair concerned, a student may register for, and audit, all or part of a course. It is understood that the student will attend lectures as prescribed, but will not write any examination or receive any grade. Such a course may be recorded as an additional course, identified by AUD.

The Master’s Examination Committee normally consists of five members as follows:

i. two graduate faculty of the Department, who are not members of the Supervisory Committee, one of whom is appointed by the Department Chair to act as chair of the Master’s Examination and to make the arrangements therefore;

ii. the Supervisor of the candidate’s research;

iii. one additional member of the Supervisory Committee;

iv. one member of the graduate faculty from a department other than that in which the student is registered.

MSc Program (Faculty of Science)

The graduate students will register in one of the designated areas of specialization listed below:

  • Molecular and Macromolecular Sciences (MMS)
  • Environmental Sciences (ESC)
  • Human Biology (HB)
  • Sustainable Design Engineering (SDE)

Students are required to take a minimum of three graduate level courses, all of which are to be regarded as substantive. A Seminar course (MMS 8900 or ESC 8900 or HB 8900 or SDE 8900) is required. Students may take only one Directed Studies course (MMS 8810 or ESC 8810 or HB 8810 or SDE 8810 or alternatively, VBS 8810 or 8820, VPM 8810 or 8820, VCA 8810 or 8820, VHM 8810 or 8820) for credit. Students lacking an Honours degree or background in one or more area may, at the discretion of the Supervisory Committee, be required to take the appropriate undergraduate level course(s), in addition to the required courses. All graduate students must receive non-credit WHMIS (Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System) training in their first year.

When a student is required to register in a seminar or colloquium course in more than one semester, the record will show a grade or a designation of “In Progress” for semesters prior to completion of the course and “Pass” or “Fail” (or a numerical grade in the case of MMS 8900) for the final semester. Enrolment in the Seminar course implies the student will participate as a presenter in at least one Graduate Studies Day. With the consent of the Supervisory Committee, and of the instructor and the Department Chair concerned, a student may register for, and audit, all or part of a course. It is understood that the student will attend lectures as prescribed, but will not write any examination or receive any grade. Such a course may be recorded as an additional course, identified by AUD.

The Master’s Examination Committee normally consists of five members as follows:

i. three members of the Supervisory Committee, including the Supervisor of the candidate’s research;

ii. one member of the area of specialization but from a department other than that of the student’s supervisor. This external examiner may be from the University of Prince Edward Island, or from another University or Research Institute, as is deemed appropriate;

iii. the Coordinator of Graduate Studies (or designate), who will Chair the Master’s Examination Committee.

Graduate Courses

Faculty of Science

Master of Science—Environmental Sciences (ESC)
Master of Science—Human Biology (HB)
Master of Science—Molecular and Macromolecular Sciences (MMS)

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES (ESC) COURSES

ESC 8000 THESIS

ESC 8120 ADVANCED TOPICS IN ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
This course covers advances in practical and theoretical aspects of aquatic and terrestrial ecology, and represents one of the three general axes of research expertise within the Department. A combination of formal lectures, directed readings, and group discussion of journal articles is used. Students are expected to prepare written reports or present seminars.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to a graduate program in Science or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
NOTE: Responsibility for this course rests with the department of Biology.

ESC 8130 ADVANCED TOPICS IN PLANT SCIENCE
This course covers current advances in botany, including plant development and morphology, anatomy and physiology, pollination biology, and biotechnology. A combination of formal lectures, directed readings, and group discussion of journal articles is used. Students are expected to prepare written reports or present seminars.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to a graduate program in Science and permission of the instructor
NOTE: Responsibility for this course rests with the department of Biology.

ESC 8620 ADVANCED FRESHWATER ECOLOGY
This course provides advanced study in the ecology of freshwater habitats, particularly those found on Prince Edward Island. The first part of the course concentrates on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of fresh waters, classification of freshwater habitats, and applied limnology. A laboratory/field component includes an introduction to water analysis techniques and field equipment, field water analysis, the collection and analysis of biological samples, and the physical properties of water. The second part is a field/lab project on a limnological topic tailored to the student’s individual program, and consists of an experimental or observational study coupled with a comprehensive literature review, project write-up, and oral presentation.
NOTE: Credit is not given for both Biology 4620 (Limnology) and Biology 8620 and ESC 8620. Responsibility for this course rests with the department of Biology.

ESC 8650 ADVANCES IN MARINE ECOLOGY
This course provides an update on relevant areas of ongoing marine research. The first part of the course concentrates on marine ecology topics including benthic-pelagic coupling, dispersal and adult-larval interactions, animal-sediment relationships, biodiversity ecosystem services, encrusting communities and their interactions, and aquatic invasive species. The second part includes participation in regular discussion sessions based on analysis of advanced literature relevant to the discipline and to the student’s particular research. Assignments include an essay relevant (but not restricted) to a student’s field of research, and a seminar on a topic relating general ecological hypotheses to the topic addressed in the essay.
NOTE: Credit will not be given for both Biology 4650 (Marine Community Ecology) and ESC 8650.
PREREQUISITE: Entry into a graduate program at UPEI and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (3 hours lecture and 3 hours lab/field trip per week, plus discussion group.)
NOTE: Responsibility for this course rests with the department of Biology.

ESC 8810 DIRECTED STUDIES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
Under the supervision of a faculty member, a graduate student independently pursues an area of interest in depth. The course includes an extensive literature review of the specific discipline, directed research on the topic, or collection and analysis of data. The student may be required to present a written report and/or present a seminar in the area. Topics must not be a part of the student’s thesis research although they may be in a complementary area. Course outlines must be approved by the supervisory committee, the department Chair, and the Dean of Science.
PREREQUISITE: Admission in the graduate program in Biology and permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ESC 8900 SEMINAR
In this course students attend seminars on current topics in their thesis areas and deliver seminars. Techniques in preparing scientific communications (oral presentations and poster displays) are also covered.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to a graduate program in Science
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
NOTE: Responsibility for this course rests with the department of Biology.

HUMAN BIOLOGY (HB) COURSES

HB 8000 THESIS

HB 8110 ADVANCED TOPICS IN CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
This course enhances student knowledge of cell and molecular biology from a research perspective. Current advances in cell and molecular biology, including biotechnology and cytogenetics, are emphasized. Topics vary yearly according to the needs of the participating students. A combination of formal lectures, directed readings, and group discussion of journal articles is used. Students are expected to prepare written reports or present seminars.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to a graduate program in Science and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
NOTE: Responsibility for this course rests with the department of Biology.

HB 8250 ADVANCED TECHNIQUES IN SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY
This course covers the principles of scanning electron microscopy, including techniques used for the preparation of biological or other materials for microscopy and the use of specialized software to analyze surface features of samples. Students learn to operate the instrument over the full spectrum of use, generating their own images and interpreting patterns. A microscopical investigation of material relevant to the student’s discipline forms the basis of a course project.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to the graduate program or Permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
NOTE: Responsibility for this course rests with the department of Biology.

HB 8350 PRINCIPLES OF POSITIVE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT THROUGH SPORT
(See Kinesiology 4350)

HB 8430 ADVANCED PHYSIOLOGY OF EXERCISE ADAPTION AND PERFORMANCE
(Cross-level listed with Kinesiology 4430)

HB 8810 DIRECTED STUDIES IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND HEALTH
Under the supervision of a faculty member, a graduate student independently pursues an area of interest in depth. The course includes an extensive literature review of the specific discipline, directed research on the topic, or collection and analysis of data. The student may be required to present a written report and/or present a seminar in the area. Topics must not be a part of the student’s thesis research although they may be in a complementary area. Course outlines must be approved by the supervisory committee, the department Chair, and the Dean of Science.
PREREQUISITE: Admission in the graduate program in Biology and permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

HB 8830 EPIDEMIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS IN PRIMARY HEALTHCARE RESEARCH
This course introduces essential principles of epidemiological applications that are relevant to primary healthcare research. Students will be introduced to the principles of patient oriented research, primary healthcare, and the background of epidemiological applications, as well as the specific applications and computations of sensitivity and specificity, risk estimation, rates and proportions, hypothesis generating and hypothesis evaluation, as well as arithmetic and mathematical modeling. A combination of formal lectures, directed readings, group discussions and interpretation of outcomes from specific analyses using customized “webulators” will be used. Students are expected to prepare written reports and/or present seminars.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to a graduate program in Science and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

HB 8850 BIOINFORMATICS FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS
This course is an introduction to bioinformatics and a practical guide to the analysis of genes and proteins. It will familiarize students with the tools and principles of contemporary bioinformatics. By the end of the course, students will have a working knowledge at the graduate level of a variety of publicly available databases and computational tools important in bioinformatics, and a grasp of the underlying principles that are adequate for them to evaluate and utilize novel techniques as they arise in the future. In addition to participating in all the lectures and activities of the undergraduate course CS 3220/BIO 3220, graduate students are expected to accomplish a graduate project and attend extra guest lectures specially prepared for graduate students (when the graduate enrolment is 3 or more). The graduate project would be related to the student’s research, so the thesis supervisor will be invited to join in the process of choosing and evaluating the graduate project. The graduate project will be worth 30% of the final grade.
Cross-level listed with CS 3220, BIO 3220, and VPM 8850
PREREQUISITE: Admission to the graduate program and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
NOTE: No student can be awarded more than one course credit among HB 8850, VPM 8850, CS 3220, and BIO 3220

HB 8900 SEMINAR
(See ESC 8900)

MOLECULAR AND MACROMOLECULAR SCIENCES (MMS) COURSES

MMS 8000 THESIS

MMS 8050 ADVANCED STUDIES IN NMR SPECTROSCOPY
This course covers the use of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrometry used in the determination of structures in Organic and Inorganic Chemistry. Major topics include the theory and use of NMR spectroscopy, in particular the use of 2D experiments and multi-nuclear NMR spectroscopy. Particular emphasis is placed on developing the students’ ability to interpret spectra and elucidate the structure of a molecule based on this evidence beyond the undergraduate level, as well as the role NMR has played as a structural tool in the pharmaceutical industry and academia. Students will have a practical/hands-on component in this course.
Cross-level listed with CHEM 4050. Credit cannot be received for both MMS 8050 and CHEM 4050
Restriction: Student must be admitted into a graduate program in Science.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

MMS 8090 BIOMATERIALS
This course covers the fundamentals of the synthesis, properties, and biocompatibility of metallic, ceramic, polymeric, and biological materials that come in contact with tissue and biological fluids. Emphasis is placed on using biomaterials for both hard and soft tissue replacement, organ replacement, coatings and adhesives, dental implants, and drug delivery systems. New trends in biomaterials and the recent merging of cell biology and biochemistry with materials is examined.
Cross-level listed with CHEM 4090. Credit cannot be received for both MMS 8090 and CHEM 4090
Restriction: Student must be admitted into a graduate program in Science
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

MMS 8690 MATERIALS CHEMISTRY
This course discusses current topics in materials chemistry. Topics include the synthesis and characterization of intercalation compounds, conductive polymers and their applications, semiconductors and their applications, defects in inorganic solids, and transport measurements. Students will perform a thorough literature search on a topic in materials science; write a review and a research proposal on the selected topic, followed by in-class presentations.
Cross-level listed with CHEM 4690. Credit cannot be received for both MMS 8690 and CHEM 4690.
PREREQUISITE:  Admission to a graduate program in Science
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

MMS 8810 DIRECTED STUDIES IN MOLECULAR AND MACROMOLECULAR SCIENCES
This course is a thorough study of a selected topic in Molecular and Macromolecular Sciences. Entry to the course, and the course outline, are subject to the approval of the Supervisory Committee, and the Dean of Science. The course may include directed reading, directed research, and discussion with the instructor. The student may be required to prepare a written report and/or present a seminar in the area. Topics must not be directly related to the student’s research project, although they may be in the same discipline.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to the graduate program and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

MMS 8820 ADVANCED TOPICS IN MOLECULAR AND MACROMOLECULAR SCIENCES
This course covers current advances and advanced topics in a discipline of Molecular and Macromolecular Sciences and is a thorough study of specific topics. It is offered to graduate students at the discretion of the Department, and covers areas of specialization not covered in other graduate courses. The course discusses recent advances in an area of interest to the students but which are not part of the students’ thesis research directly.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to the graduate program and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
NOTE: Responsibility for this course rests with the department of Chemistry.

MMS 8830 ADVANCED TOPICS IN COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY
This course exercises the application of computational chemistry to structural and reactivity questions in organic and inorganic chemistry. Computational methods discussed include molecular mechanics, ab initio and semi-empirical calculations, and density functional theory. The objective is to gain an understanding of the application of these methods to chemical problems. The current literature is explored to illustrate the use of computational chemistry in research.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to MSc Program
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
NOTE: Responsibility for this course rests with the department of Chemistry.

MMS 8840 ADVANCED SPECTROSCOPIC STRUCTURE ELUCIDATION
This course covers various forms of spectrometry used in the determination of structures in Organic and Inorganic Chemistry. Major topics include the theory and use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, in particular the use of 2D experiments; mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy. Particular emphasis is placed on developing the students’ ability to interpret spectra and elucidate the structure of a molecule based on this evidence. Spectroscopic techniques for the study of transient species are also discussed, including: laser flash photolysis (LFP); laser-induced fluorescence (LIF); and stopped-flow and relaxation methods for fast reaction studies.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to the graduate program
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
NOTE: Responsibility for this course rests with the department of Chemistry.

MMS 8900 SEMINAR IN MOLECULAR AND MACROMOLECULAR SCIENCES
In this course students attend regular departmental seminars. Students are also required to present a seminar on a topic within their discipline, but unrelated to their research project. Students must register for this course each semester, and receive a grade of “In Progress” until completion of their MSc programs.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to MSc Program in Science
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
NOTE: Responsibility for this course rests with the department of Chemistry.

Faculty of Engineering

SUSTAINABLE DESIGN ENGINEERING (SDE) COURSES

SDE 8000 THESIS
Registration of thesis
PREREQUISITE: Admission to the School of Sustainable Design Engineering
NOTE: No credit, but registration required.

SDE 8020 QUALITY CONTROL AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT
This course is an introduction to the most widely accepted project management practices in the workforce today. The student will learn the industrially accepted techniques associated with the management of time, cost, risk, and scope in order to achieve total project stakeholder satisfaction. The goal in this course is to prepare students with the most efficient and effective project management practices by applying these techniques to their graduate research work, and in so doing greatly increase their likelihood of managing successful projects during their careers.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to the School of Sustainable Design Engineering
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

SDE 8040 DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS
This course focuses on the design, implementation, and analysis of engineering, scientific, and computer-based experiments. The course will examine the proper and scientific approach to experimentation, modeling, simulation, and analysis of data. Various designs are discussed and their respective advantages and disadvantages are noted. Factorial designs and sensitivity analysis will be studied in detail because of its relevance to various industries. Use of software for designing and analyzing experiments will also be used. For experiments that involved mainly physical quantities and natural phenomena, techniques of dimensional analysis will also be introduced.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to the graduate program in School of Sustainable Design Engineering
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

SDE 8060 MODELING, CONTROL, AND DESIGN OF ENERGY SYSTEMS
This course focuses on the understanding of the physical processes underlying the energy conversion process from wind and solar energy. Students will have an advanced knowledge of aerodynamics and structural dynamics, and they will understand the main strategies used for controlling these machines over their complete operating range. A specific goal of the course is to provide students with a multidisciplinary vision on the physics of energy systems, and an understanding of the methods used for their modeling and simulation. A particular emphasis will be placed on design, and on the effects of design choices on the cost of energy.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to the graduate program in School of Sustainable Design Engineering
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

SDE 8080 INDUSTRIAL MACHINE VISION
This course focuses on computer vision with an emphasis on techniques for automated inspection, object recognition, mechanical metrology, and robotics. Image processing courses typically focus for image enhancement, restoration, filtering, smoothing, etc. These topics will be covered to a certain degree but the main focus will be on image segmentation, feature extraction, morphological operators, recognition and photogrammetry. Issues related to the efficient software implementation of these techniques for real-time applications will also be addressed.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to the graduate program in School of Sustainable Design Engineering
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

SDE 8100 BIOFUEL AND BIOMASS TECHNOLOGY
This course focuses on advanced concepts in understanding biofuels and bioenergy systems, renewable feedstocks, their production, availability and attributes for biofuel/bioenergy production, types of biomass derived fuels and energy, thermochemical conversion of biomass to heat, power and fuel, biochemical conversion of biomass to fuel environmental aspects of biofuel production, economics and life-cycle analysis of biofuel, and value adding of biofuel residues. Students will analyze, as well as prepare, case studies on biofuel production.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to the graduate program in School of Sustainable Design Engineering
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

SDE 8230 TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT & ENTREPRENEURSHIP
Cross-level listed with Engineering 4320.
Graduate-level project will be defined.

SDE 8310 ADVANCED FABRICATION TECHNIQUES AND COMPUTER-INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING
This course concentrates on manufacturing knowledge with a focus on advanced fabrication techniques (AFT) and Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM). Students will expand their knowledge of  traditional processes including CAD/CAM, forming, welding, milling, etc. leading into innovative advanced fabrication techniques in additive and precision manufacturing, next generation electronics, robotics and smart automation (CIM), and sustainable and green manufacturing modeling and simulation in the manufacturing process developed through lectures and labs. Integration of CIM into supply chain design and management is emphasized based on synergistic application of mechatronics approach and philosophy.  Graduate-level project will be required as defined in consultation with the instructor.
Cross-level listed with ENGN 4310; credit cannot be received for both courses.
Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week.

SDE 8320 CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN
This course will provide students with an overview of system modelling and control methodologies of single/multiple input/output systems, e.g., energy transport control, reactor control, heat exchanger control, power production, and mechatronic systems. Students will learn classical control methods e.g., feedforward, feedbacks, cascade, decoupling to modern control methods, LQR, predictive control, optimal and robust control. Students will be equipped with knowledge and skills for analyzing stability, controllability and observability of state-space representation modelled systems. Graduate-level project will be required as defined in consultation with the instructor.
Cross-level listed with ENGN 4320; credit cannot be received for both courses.
Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week.

SDE 8330 INNOVATIONS IN BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING
This course provides an overview of the subdisciplines that are included in field of biomedical engineering. Through a hands-on approach, the course introduces topics including biotransport, bioelectrical phenomena, bioinstrumentation, biomechanics, diagnostic devices, medical imaging, rehabilitation, biomaterials, tissue engineering, biosensors, lab-on-a-chip and micro- and nano-technology. The course also introduces the basics of medical device regulations and ethics of medical instrumentation. Students will gain an appreciation for the collaborative, interdisciplinary nature of engineering in medicine and its potential impact on society.
Graduate project will be defined.
Cross-level listed with ENGN 4330; credit cannot be received for both courses.
Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week.

SDE 8350 ADVANCED ROBOTIC DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
This course advances the fundamentals of robotics through exposure to in-depth knowledge and understanding of kinematics, dynamics, control and trajectory with applications to autonomous vehicles, automated manufacturing and processing and mobile robotics. Areas of interest include: position transformation and control, rigid body motion, kinematic control, compliance and force control. Graduate-level project will be required as defined in consultation with the instructor.
Cross-level listed with ENGN 4350; credit cannot be received for both courses.
Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week

SDE 8370 FLUID POWER CONTROL
This course covers the analysis and design of basic hydraulic and pneumatic circuits and systems. Topics include a review of the fundamentals of fluid mechanics including flow through valves, fittings, and pipe; classification of hydrostatic pumps and motors; control valves; hydraulic accumulators; sizing of practical hydraulic circuits; thermal and energy considerations;  electrohydraulic control and modeling of hydraulic control systems. The latter part of the course focuses on pneumatic systems including pneumatic cylinders and motors, control valves, and compressor technology. The application of Programmable Logic Controls (PLCs) to industrial automation and the sequential control of pneumatic actuators is also addressed. Graduate-level project will be required as defined in consultation with the instructor.
Cross-level listed with ENGN 4370; credit cannot be received for both courses.
Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week

SDE 8410 MACRO ENERGY SYSTEMS
This course covers methods for analyzing energy supply, conversion processes, and end-use at the system level. Aspects considered include the dynamics of energy supply and demand, efficiencies of energy conversion, characteristics of energy currencies, and energy needs across different sectors. Students will characterize methods of delivering energy services such as heat, light, industrial power and transportation. Energy analysis will be introduced and used to build a quantitative framework for integrating techno-economic analysis of energy system components, with emphasis on elements such as fossil fuels and nuclear power. Students will gain an enhanced, quantitative appreciation for the sustainability, emissions, cost and energy intensity aspects of energy services delivery.  Graduate-level project will be required as defined in consultation with the instructor.
Cross-level listed with ENGN 4410; credit cannot be received for both courses.
Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week

SDE 8440 ADVANCED ENERGY STORAGE
This course considers advanced technical analysis of energy storage systems. A comprehensive overview of all industrially relevant energy storage systems is reviewed and emphasis is placed on promising energy storage technologies of the future. Chemical, thermal and kinetic storage technologies will be discussed in detail.  Graduate-level project will be required as defined in consultation with the instructor.
Cross-level listed with ENGN 4440; credit cannot be received for both courses.
Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week

SDE 8450 FLUID LOADS ON ENERGY STRUCTURES
This course is an introduction to the loads applied on structures from wind, waves, and currents, and their heightened relevance to structures designed for energy conversion.
Phenomena to be discussed include lift and drag, boundary layers, vortex-induced vibrations, wakes, hydrostatic loading, and water waves. A selection of engineering methods will be introduced and brought to bear on these topics, such as potential flow theory, blade-element theory, Airy wave theory and Morison’s equation. Dimensional analysis will be introduced to characterize flow problems. Design implications will be discussed for a selection of relevant energy conversion structures such as aircraft wings, wind turbines, breakwaters, marine vessels, and offshore energy platforms. Graduate-level project will be required as defined in consultation with the instructor.
Cross-level listed with ENGN 4450; credit cannot be received for both courses.
Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week

SDE 8470 MICRO GRIDS
This course focuses on the concept, operation and optimization of renewable-energy-based micro-grids. Concepts introduced and considered include renewable energy resources, integration technologies, grid-connected operation, islanded grid operation, energy storage integration and the optimal dimensioning and mixing of multiple energy sources where some are stochastic in nature and some are dispatchable. Existing and future energy storage technologies will be also be discussed.  This course is based on energy flow analysis and
makes extensive use of software simulation tools.  Students will develop a framework for performing techno-economic assessments of micro-grid architectures and designs. A strong background in electrical power systems is not necessarily required.  Graduate-level project will be required as defined in consultation with the instructor.
Cross-level listed with ENGN 4470; credit cannot be received for both courses.
Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week

SDE 8510 GEOINFORMATICS IN BIORESOURCES
This course covers the theory and practice of geoinformatics and their applications to problems in bioresources using digital mapping and spatial analysis. Hands on laboratories will provide students with an experience to collect georeferenced data using differential global positioning system, followed by mapping and analysis in geographical information system.  Topics include datums, map projections and transformations, vector and raster data, geo-spatial analysis, geo-statistics and interpolation techniques. This course will also
cover the fundamentals of remote sensing, data collection with sensors, and spatial and temporal aspects of the bio-resources attributes. Graduate-level project will be required as
defined in consultation with the instructor.
Cross-level listed with ENGN 4510; credit cannot be received for both courses.
Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week

SDE 8530 FUNDAMENTALS OF AGRICULTURE MACHINERY
This course highlights the fundamentals of mechanized agriculture machinery from soil preparation, planting, and crop management to mechanical harvesting. The machines and their unit operation are analyzed with respect functions, work rates, material flow and power usage. The machine performance relating to work quality and environmental effects will also be evaluated. The labs will emphasize on safety, basic maintenance, adjustment, calibrations of equipment and performance testing. This course also covers the variable rate applicators for site-specific application of inputs, auto guidance system, data acquisition and management for intelligent decision making for machines, and precision agriculture technologies.  Graduate-level project will be required as defined in consultation with the instructor.
Cross-level listed with ENGN 4530; credit cannot be received for both courses.
Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week

SDE 8550 CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES
Processes used in the chemical and biological industries, which emphasize underlying physical, chemical, and biological principles, will be introduced. By carrying out the mass and energy balances, students will conduct design and economic assessment of major chemical and biological engineering processes. Introduction to modelling of chemical processes will be covered in this course.  Graduate-level project will be required as defined in consultation with the instructor.
Cross-level listed with ENGN 4550; credit cannot be received for both courses.
Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week

SDE 8810 DIRECTED STUDIES IN SUSTAINABLE DESIGN ENGINEERING
Under the supervision of a faculty member, a graduate student independently pursues an area of interest in depth. The course includes an extensive literature review of the specific discipline, directed research on the topic, or collection and analysis of data. The student may be required to present a written report and/or present a seminar in the area. Topics must not be a part of the student’s thesis research although they may be in a complementary area. Course outlines must be approved by the supervisory committee, the department Chair, and the Dean of Science.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to the graduate program in School of Sustainable Design Engineering and permission of supervisor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

SDE 8830 BIOMEDICAL SIGNAL PROCESSING
This course is an introduction to the basics of viewing, processing, and analyzing of biosignals, or signals originating from living beings.  Biosignals may be characterized as bioelectrical signals which can be composed of both electrical and non-electrical parts. Topics include both linear and nonlinear systems, signal conditioning or filtering, improving signal quality (signal-to-noise ratio) through averaging techniques, and signal representations in both the time and frequency domains.  Graduate-level project will be required as defined in consultation with the instructor.
Cross-level listed with ENGN 4830; credit cannot be received for both courses.
Three lecture hours and three lab hours per week

SDE 8900 SEMINAR
In this course students attend seminars on current topics in their research area of Sustainable Design Engineering and are expected to be seminar presenters. Techniques in preparing scientific communication (oral presentations and poster displays) are also covered.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to the graduate program in School of Sustainable Design Engineering
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

FACULTY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE COURSES

Biomedical Sciences
Companion Animals
Health Management
Pathology & Microbiology

BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES COURSES

VBS 8010 ELECTRON MICROSCOPY: PRINCIPLES, TECHNIQUES AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
This laboratory-oriented course introduces students to the principles and procedures required for the examination of structures with the transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the interpretation/analysis of ultrastructural features of cells and tissues.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 4
LECTURES: 3 hours
LABORATORIES: 4 hours

VBS 8030 PRINCIPLES OF BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH
This course provides graduate students in a biomedical field with general knowledge and principles of biomedical research. The lectures and tutorials cover topics like the scientific approach, experimental design, scientific writing, intellectual property, research ethics, preparing seminars, and grant writing. The laboratories focus on laboratory techniques that are useful in biomedical research.
LECTURES/TUTORIALS: 1-3 hours
LABORATORIES: 3 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2 or 3

VBS 8170 CURRENT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY
This course deals with advanced topics in Marine Biotechnology. Topics include: marine microbiology, natural products biosynthesis, isolation and characterization of bioactive natural products, heterologous expression of biosynthetic genes, drug development, chemical ecology. The course will meet for three contact hours per week and will involve in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature.
PREREQUISITE: Chemistry 2410/2420 OR 2430 and permission of instructor; a course in biochemistry would be an asset but is not required.
LECTURE: 3 hours
LAB/TUTORIAL: 0
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VBS 8230 FUNDAMENTALS OF DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
This course is designed to enhance student knowledge of the basic concepts in developmental biology. Early development of vertebrates is discussed with emphasis on experimental and molecular analysis of developmental mechanisms.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
TUTORIAL: 3 hours

VBS 8240 ADVANCED TOPICS IN DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
This course focuses on recent advances in developmental biology. Topics are selected from the recent literature according to student interests and may include embryonic induction, regulation of morphogenesis and differentiation, mechanisms of regional specification and pattern formation.
PREREQUISITES: VBS 8230 or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
TUTORIAL: 2 hours

VBS 8450 ADVANCED ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY
This course provides in-depth analysis of environmental impacts of the major classes of contaminants including methodologies for environmental impacts assessment and monitoring. Effects of environmental contaminants are examined at the ecosystem, organismal, cellular, biochemical, and molecular levels. Additional emphasis is placed on understanding the fate of contaminants of concern in aquatic and terrestrial environments, environmental chemistry, biogeochemical cycles, and exposure and uptake pathways by organisms. The course consists of lectures, discussions of peer- reviewed literature, case studies, presentations by students, and laboratories.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of the instructor
LECTURE/LAB: 3
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VBS 8520 INTRODUCTION TO NEUROSCIENCE
This is a lecture/discussion course with supplemental laboratories and readings. Topics include introductions to neuroanatomy, neurophysiology and neuropharmacology of mammalian systems including current concepts in neuronal processing and integration.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate anatomy, physiology and pharmacology or equivalent and permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 1 hour
TUTORIALS: 2 hours

VBS 8630 PRINCIPLES OF CELL PHYSIOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY
This advanced course on pharmacological principles is based on an understanding of cell physiology. The course covers membrane properties and principles of receptor function relevant to cell physiology and pharmacology and includes cellular, biochemical, and molecular aspects of drug actions. Students present and discuss weekly readings.
PREREQUISITES: Undergraduate biochemistry and physiology and permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURE: 1 hour
TUTORIAL: 2 hours

VBS 8760 BIOCHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY
This course provides students with an understanding of the chemical and biochemical basis of toxicology. The principles of toxicology are the general focus of the course, but system specific aspects are covered with an emphasis on mechanisms of toxicity. The course includes lectures, seminars and student presentations.
PREREQUISITES: A course on Cellular Basis of Physiology and Pharmacology or an undergraduate course in pharmacology or toxicology that is approved by the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURE: 1.5 hours
TUTORIAL: 1.5 hours

VBS 8810-8820 DIRECTED STUDIES
This course is a thorough study of a selected problem or topic in the discipline. The course may include directed reading, directed research, or collection and analysis of data. The student will prepare a written report and present a seminar on the topic.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1-3

VBS 8900 SEMINAR
In this course students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to Master if Science program
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

VBS 8920 ADVANCES IN FISH PHYSIOLOGY
This is an advanced course covering a range of selected topics on fish form and function. Interaction of fish with their ecosystems is emphasized. Students are actively involved by presenting and discussing readings provided weekly. Each student presents a formal seminar on a selected topic at the conclusion of the course.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate courses in animal physiology (i.e. Bio 4020 or VBS 1210 and 1220, or equivalent) and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 1 hour

VBS 9900 SEMINAR
This is a seminar course in which students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to PhD program
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

COMPANION ANIMALS COURSES

VCA 8110 ADVANCED MEDICINE OF URINARY, ENDOCRINE AND METABOLIC/ELECTROLYTE DISORDERS
This course is a detailed study of the physiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of urinary, endocrine and metabolic/electrolyte disorders of companion animals. Areas of current interest or controversy, as well as recent advances in knowledge and management are emphasized. Requirements for the course include critical evaluation of current literature and presentation of seminars on selected topics.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate courses in physiology, pathophysiology and medicine and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
LECTURES: 2 hours

VCA 8120 CLINICS IN SMALL ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE I
This course is given in the fall or winter and provides initial training in small animal internal medicine. Students interview owners, carry out physical examinations, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests and diagnose and treat canine and feline patients under the close supervision of small animal medicine faculty. Although students will have primary case responsibility, it is expected that they will consult frequently with small animal medicine faculty and have close supervision when performing clinical or diagnostic procedures. Topics discussed in rounds include those related to preventive medicine, nutrition, gastroenterology, nephrology, urology, oncology, cardiology, neurology, pulmonology, infectious disease, emergency medicine and critical care, endocrinology, hematology and immunology. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and successful admission into a small animal medicine residency training program in the Department of Companion Animals, AVC.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (Credits based on at least 6 to 7 hours/week of teaching rounds/seminars)

VCA 8130 CLINICS IN SMALL ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE II
This course is given in the fall or winter and provides further training in small animal internal medicine. Students interview owners, carry out physical examinations, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests and diagnose and treat canine and feline patients under the close supervision of small animal medicine faculty. Students will have primary case responsibility and will consult often with small animal medicine faculty. Students will be supervised as required when performing clinical or diagnostic procedures. Topics discussed in rounds include those related to preventive medicine, nutrition, gastroenterology, nephrology, urology, oncology, cardiology, neurology, pulmonology, infectious disease, emergency medicine and critical care, endocrinology, hematology and immunology. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and successful completion of Clinics in Small Animal Internal Medicine I
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (Credits based on at least 6 to 7 hours/week of teaching rounds/seminars)

VCA 8140 CLINICS IN ADVANCED SMALL ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE I
This course is given in the fall or winter and provides advanced training in small animal internal medicine. Students interview owners, carry out physical examinations, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests and diagnose and treat canine and feline patients under the supervision of small animal medicine faculty. Students will have primary case responsibility and consult with small animal medicine faculty on an as needed basis. Students will be supervised as required when performing clinical or diagnostic procedures. Students will also be required to supervise teaching rounds on an occasional basis. Topics discussed in rounds include those related to preventive medicine, nutrition, gastroenterology, nephrology, urology, oncology, cardiology, neurology, pulmonology, infectious disease, emergency medicine and critical care, endocrinology, hematology and immunology. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and successful completion of Clinics in Small Animal Internal Medicine I & II
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (Credits based on at least 6 to 7 hours/week of teaching rounds/seminars)

VCA 8150 CLINICS IN ADVANCED SMALL ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE II
This course is given in the fall or winter and provides advanced training in small animal internal medicine. Students interview owners, carry out physical examinations, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests and diagnose and treat canine and feline patients under the supervision of small animal medicine faculty. Students will have primary case responsibility and consult with small animal medicine faculty on an as needed basis. Students will be supervised as required when performing clinical or diagnostic procedures. Students will also be required to supervise teaching rounds on an occasional basis. Topics discussed in rounds include those related to preventive medicine, nutrition, gastroenterology, nephrology, urology, oncology, cardiology, neurology, pulmonology, infectious disease, emergency medicine and critical care, endocrinology, hematology and immunology. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and successful completion of Clinics in Small Animal Internal Medicine I & II
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (Credits based on at least 6 to 7 hours/week of teaching rounds/seminars)
LECTURES: 2 hours

VCA 8160 ADVANCED SURGERY OF THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM
This course provides advanced training in small animal surgery, including the pathophysiology of advanced musculoskeletal diseases of companion animals and advanced surgical treatments. Topics include fracture management, juvenile orthopaedic disease, osteoarthritis and management, joint replacement, ligament and tendon injuries, immune mediated muscular and joint diseases, orthopaedic surgical instrumentation, and biomaterials used in orthopaedic implants. Students use refereed journal articles and approved textbooks, and practise advanced surgical procedures using cadavers and models in the laboratory component.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (credits based on 3 hours of classroom instruction per week and 9 hours of laboratory time)

VCA 8170 ADVANCED SURGERY OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND REHABILITATION
This course provides advanced training in small animal surgery. Students are instructed in pathophysiology of advanced neurologic diseases of companion animals and advanced surgical and conservative treatment of these conditions. Topics include spinal fracture management, intervertebral disc disease, intracranial disease, immune mediated and infectious neurological diseases, neurological surgical instrumentation, and biomaterials used in neurosurgery. Students also discuss techniques and current theory regarding rehabilitation of neurologic animals and animals with musculoskeletal disease. Students use refereed journal articles and approved textbooks, and practise advanced surgical procedures using cadavers and models in the laboratory component.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (credits based on 3 hours of classroom instruction per week and 9 hours of laboratory time)

VCA 8180 ADVANCED SURGERY OF THE CARDIOTHORACIC SYSTEM
This course provides advanced training in small animal surgery. Students are instructed in advanced surgical management of diseases involving the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, and thoracic cavity. Topics include pathophysiology of surgical diseases involving the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, and thoracic cavity; advanced surgical techniques to treat these diseases; and post-operative care and prognosis. Diseases covered include patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonary neoplasia, thoracic wall neoplasia and trauma, brachycephalic airway syndrome, laryngeal paralysis, and tracheal collapse. Students use refereed journal articles and approved textbooks, and practise advanced surgical procedures using cadavers and models in the laboratory component.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (credits based on 3 hours of classroom instruction per week and 9 hours of laboratory time)

VCA 8190 ADVANCED SURGERY OF THE UROGENITAL SYSTEM
This course provides advanced training in small animal surgery. Students are instructed in the pathophysiology of diseases of the urogenital system and surgical treatment of these diseases. Topics include pre-operative management of patients with renal insufficiency, and indications and surgical methods for diseases involving the kidneys, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra, and the male and female reproductive systems. Specific techniques for diagnostics are discussed, as well as specific instrumentation and biomaterials for treating diseases involving the urogenital system. Students use refereed journal articles and approved textbooks, and practise advanced surgical procedures using cadavers and models in the laboratory component.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (credits based on 3 hours of classroom instruction per week and 9 hours of laboratory time)

VCA 8210 ADVANCED MEDICINE OF RESPIRATORY AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS AND CRITICAL CARE
This course is a detailed study of the physiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of respiratory and cardiovascular disorders of companion animals. Issues in critical care medicine are included. Areas of current interest or controversy, as well as recent advances in knowledge and management are emphasized. Requirements for the course include critical evaluation of current literature and presentation of seminars on selected topics.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate courses in physiology, pathophysiology and medicine and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
LECTURES: 2 hours

VCA 8220 ADVANCED SURGERY OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL AND ENDOCRINE SYSTEMS
This course provides advanced training in small animal surgery. Students are instructed in the pathophysiology of diseases of the gastrointestinal and endocrine systems and surgical treatment of these diseases. Topics include gastric dilation volvulus; intestinal and gastric foreign bodies; intestinal and gastric neoplasia; persistent right aortic arch; abdominal wall and diaphragmatic hernias; diseases of the liver and gallbladder; diseases of the colon, thyroid, and parathyroid; and adrenal disease. Specific techniques for diagnostics are discussed, as well as specific instrumentation and biomaterials for treating diseases involving the gastrointestinal system. Students use refereed journal articles and approved textbooks, and
practise advanced surgical procedures using cadavers and models in the laboratory component.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (credits based on 3 hours of classroom instruction per week and 9 hours of laboratory time)

VCA 8222 CLINICS IN SMALL ANIMAL SURGERY I
This course is given in any academic semester based on student enrolment and provides initial training in small animal surgery. Students diagnose and treat canine and feline patients under the close supervision of small animal surgery faculty. Although students will have primary case responsibility, it is expected that they will consult frequently with small animal surgery faculty and have close supervision when performing diagnostic or surgical procedures. Topics discussed in rounds include those related to orthopedic, neurologic, oncologic and general soft tissue surgery with regards to pathophysiology of disease, diagnostic evaluation, surgical anatomy, surgical procedures and postoperative management. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3 (Credits based on at least 6 to 7 hours/week of teaching rounds/seminars)

VCA 8223 CLINICS IN SMALL ANIMAL SURGERY II
This course is given in any academic semester based on student enrolment and provides further training in small animal surgery. Students diagnose and treat canine and feline patients under the close supervision of small animal surgery faculty. Although students will have primary case responsibility, it is expected that they will consult frequently with small animal surgery faculty and have close supervision when performing diagnostic or surgical procedures. Topics discussed in rounds include those related to orthopedic, neurologic, oncologic and general soft tissue surgery with regards to pathophysiology of disease, diagnostic evaluation, surgical anatomy, surgical procedures and postoperative management. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree and successful completion of VCA 8222
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3 (Credits based on at least 6 to 7 hours/week of teaching rounds/seminars)

VCA 8224 CLINICS IN ADVANCED SMALL ANIMAL SURGERY I
This course is given in any academic semester based on student enrolment and provides advanced training in small animal surgery. Students interview owners, carry out physical examinations, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests and diagnose and treat canine and feline patients under the supervision of small animal surgery faculty. Students will have primary case responsibility and consult with small animal surgery faculty on an as needed basis. Students will be supervised as required when performing diagnostic or surgical procedures. Students will also be required to supervise teaching rounds on an occasional basis. Topics discussed in rounds include those related to orthopedic, neurologic, oncologic and general soft tissue surgery with regards to pathophysiology of disease, diagnostic evaluation, surgical anatomy, surgical procedures and postoperative management. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree and successful completion of VCA 8222 and VCA 8223
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3 (Credits based on at least 6 to 7 hours/week of teaching rounds/seminars)

VCA 8225 CLINICS IN ADVANCED SMALL ANIMAL SURGERY II
This course is given in any academic semester based on student enrolment and provides further advanced training in small animal surgery. Students interview owners, carry out physical examinations, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests and diagnose and treat canine and feline patients under the supervision of small animal surgery faculty. Students will have primary case responsibility and consult with small animal surgery faculty on an as needed basis. Students will be supervised as required when performing diagnostic or surgical procedures. Students will also be required to supervise teaching rounds on an occasional basis. Topics discussed in rounds include those related to orthopedic, neurologic, oncologic and general soft tissue surgery with regards to pathophysiology of disease, diagnostic evaluation, surgical anatomy, surgical procedures and postoperative management. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree and successful completion of VCA 8224
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3 (Credits based on at least 6 to 7 hours/week of teaching rounds/seminars)
VCA 8230 ADVANCED SURGICAL BIOLOGY, WOUND MANAGEMENT, AND EAR DISEASE
This course provides advanced training in small animal surgery. Students are instructed in advanced surgical pathophysiology of wounds and ear diseases, as well as advanced concepts regarding biomaterials, asepsis, and critical care for trauma and post-operative patients. Topics include wound healing and grafting, methods of sterilization and pathophysiology of shock, use of blood transfusion medicine antibiotics in surgical patients, and general surgical techniques. Students use refereed journal articles and approved textbooks, and practise advanced surgical procedures using cadavers and models in the laboratory component.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (credits based on 3 hours of classroom instruction per week and 9 hours of laboratory time)

VCA 8240 ADVANCED MEDICINE OF NEUROMUSCULAR, JOINT, HEMATOPOIETIC, AND IMMUNE MEDIATED DISORDERS AND ONCOLOGY
This course is a detailed study of the physiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of neuromuscular, joint, hematopoietic, and immune mediated disorders of companion animals. Issues in medical oncology are included. Areas of current interest or controversy, as well as recent advances in knowledge and management, are emphasized. Requirements for the course include critical evaluation of current literature and presentation of seminars on selected topics.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate courses in physiology, pathophysiology, and medicine and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
LECTURES: 2 hours

VCA 8250 COMPANION ANIMAL ANESTHESIA, RADIOLOGY, & CARDIOLOGY
This course provides advanced training in companion animal anesthesiology, radiology, and cardiology and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVAA, ACVR, ACVIM – cardiology), students spend 4 weeks in companion animal clinical anesthesia, radiology, and cardiology at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures (e.g. radiography) interpret diagnostic tests, and anesthetize companion animal patients. Topics discussed in rounds include radiographic and anesthetic techniques, anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, pathophysiology etc. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.  This course is graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

VCA 8260 COMPANION ANIMAL CLINICAL PRACTICE I
This course provides advanced training in companion animal internal medicine, surgery, and companion animal community practice and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS), students spend 8 weeks in companion animal clinical services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat companion animal patients. Topics discussed in rounds include surgical techniques, surgical anatomy, preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance, pharmacology, etc. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.  This course is graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VCA 8270 COMPANION ANIMAL CLINICAL PRACTICE II
This course provides additional advanced training in companion animal internal medicine, surgery, and companion animal community practice and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS), students spend 12 weeks in companion animal clinical services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat companion animal patients. Topics discussed in rounds include surgical techniques, surgical anatomy, preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance, pharmacology, etc. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.  This course is graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VCA 8280 COMPANION ANIMAL CLINICAL PRACTICE III
This course provides additional advanced training in companion animal internal medicine, surgery, and companion animal community practice and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS), students spend 12 weeks in companion animal clinical services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat companion animal patients. Topics discussed in rounds include surgical techniques, surgical anatomy, preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance, pharmacology, etc. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.  This course is graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VCA 8290 COMPANION ANIMAL TRIAGE AND EMERGENCY CARE
This course provides training in companion animal triage and emergency care and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS, AVCAA, ACVR), students spend 12 weeks in companion animal triage services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat companion animal patients in need of emergency and critical care. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.  This course is graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VCA 8310 ADVANCED MEDICINE OF GASTROINTESTINAL HEPATOBILIARY PANCREATIC AND INFECTIOUS DISORDERS AND NUTRITION
This course is a detailed study of the physiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, pancreatic and infectious disorders of companion animals. Issues in nutritional management of disease are included. Areas of current interest or controversy, as well as recent advances in knowledge and management are emphasized. Requirements for the course include critical evaluation of current literature and presentation of seminars on selected topics.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate courses in physiology, pathophysiology and medicine and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
LECTURES: 2 hours

VCA 8320 ADVANCED COMPANION ANIMAL TOPICS
This fall semester lecture/seminar course reviews recent advances in companion animal internal medicine, surgery, and radiology at a level appropriate for interns. The course meets two times a week and includes a mix of instructor- and student-directed in-depth discussions of complicated clinical cases and relevant current literature in companion animal medicine, surgery and radiology. Students are evaluated on their case/paper selection, critical reading skills, presentation skills, and participation in discussions. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.  This course is graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VCA 8330 CLINICAL CASE PRESENTATION AND PROJECT REPORT
In this course students present a seminar to the AVC community during the Clinical Conference course on a clinical case relevant to their discipline. Students must also attend presentations by others in this course. In addition, they must submit a written report on a topic of their choice (clinical case report, clinical investigation, prospective or retrospective case study, literature review, etc.) approved by their supervisor prior to the conclusion of their program. The report should make a contribution to the body of knowledge in the candidate’s field. Publication in a refereed journal is encouraged but not required. Students are assessed utilizing standardized rubrics for the two course components.  This course is graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor

HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VCA 8335 TOPICS IN VETERINARY DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING I
This course is given in any academic semester based on student enrolment and provides students with opportunities to further their professional & research-related skills. Students in this course will provide one lecture pertaining to veterinary diagnostic imaging during the regular Grand Rounds lecture series. An additional special topics lecture related to veterinary diagnostic imaging will be performed for the diagnostic imaging faculty. The student will have an opportunity to receive critical feedback on presentation skills. This course is the first of a series based on gradual increasing case load required over multiple semesters. The student will also engage in scientific writing activity, with the support of a diagnostic imaging faculty, and will produce a manuscript for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. (one per series of courses).
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1
Note:  Intended for graduate students in a clinical discipline.


VCA 8336 TOPICS IN VETERINARY DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING II
This course is given in any academic semester based on student enrolment and provides students with opportunities to further their professional & research-related skills. Students in this course will provide one lecture pertaining to veterinary diagnostic imaging during the regular Grand Rounds lecture series. An additional special topics lecture related to veterinary diagnostic imaging will be performed for the diagnostic imaging faculty. The student will have an opportunity to receive critical feedback on presentation skills.  This course is part of a series based on gradual accumulation of case material required over multiple semesters. The student will also engage in scientific writing activity, with the support of a diagnostic imaging faculty, and will produce a manuscript for publication in a peer-reviewed journal at the conclusion of the course series.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and VCA 8335 and permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1
Note:  Intended for graduate students in a clinical discipline.

VCA 8337 TOPICS IN VETERINARY DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING III
This course is given in any academic semester based on student enrolment and provides students with opportunities to further their professional & research-related skills. Students in this course will provide one lecture pertaining to veterinary diagnostic imaging during the regular Grand Rounds lecture series. An additional special topics lecture related to veterinary diagnostic imaging will be performed for the diagnostic imaging faculty. The student will have an opportunity to receive critical feedback on presentation skills.  This course is part of a series based on gradual accumulation of case material required over multiple semesters. The student will also engage in scientific writing activity, with the support of a diagnostic imaging faculty, and will produce a manuscript for publication in a peer-reviewed journal at the conclusion of the course series.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and VCA 8336 and permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1
Note:  Intended for graduate students in a clinical discipline.

VCA 8338 TOPICS IN VETERINARY DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING IV
This course is given in any academic semester based on student enrolment and provides students with opportunities to further their professional & research-related skills. Students in this course will provide one lecture pertaining to veterinary diagnostic imaging during the regular Grand Rounds lecture series. An additional special topics lecture related to veterinary diagnostic imaging will be performed for the diagnostic imaging faculty. The student will have an opportunity to receive critical feedback on presentation skills.  This course is part of a series based on gradual accumulation of case material required over multiple semesters. The student will also engage in scientific writing activity, with the support of a diagnostic imaging faculty, and will produce a manuscript for publication in a peer-reviewed journal at the conclusion of the course series.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and VCA 8337 and permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1
Note:  Intended for graduate students in a clinical discipline.

VCA 8410 GRADUATE ANAESTHESIOLOGY I: APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY
This course is a detailed study of the physiology and pathophysiology of different body systems as they relate to the clinical practice of veterinary anaesthesiology. Reviewed are neural, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatic, renal, and neuromuscular physiology, as well as body fluid composition and haemostasis. This course emphasizes clinically relevant aspects of the physiology and pathophysiology of different body systems and relates these aspects to the anaesthetic management of both small and large animals. The course is taught in a two-hour weekly seminar format using videoconference links between anaesthesiology faculty and graduate students at the Atlantic Veterinary College and other Canadian veterinary colleges.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
LECTURES: 2 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2


VCA 8420 GRADUATE ANAESTHESIOLOGY II: APPLIED PHARMACOLOGY
This course is a detailed study of the pharmacology of different classes of anaesthetic and analgesic drugs as they relate to the clinical practice of veterinary anaesthesiology. Reviewed are the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of sedatives, analgesics, injectable and inhalant anaesthetics, local anaesthetics, and muscle relaxants, as well as autonomic and anti-inflammatory drugs. This course emphasizes clinically relevant aspects of the pharmacology of different classes of anaesthetic and analgesic drugs and relate these aspects to the anaesthetic management of both small and large animals. The course is taught in a two-hour weekly seminar format using videoconference links between anaesthesiology faculty and graduate students at the Atlantic Veterinary College and other Canadian veterinary colleges.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree
LECTURES: 2 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VCA 8430 GRADUATE ANAESTHESIOLOGY III: CLINICAL ANESTHESIOLOGY
This course is a detailed study of the anaesthetic management of patients with disease of different body systems, as well as selected patients and procedures. This course emphasizes clinically relevant aspects of the pathophysiology of different disease processes in both small and large animals. The course is taught in a two-hour weekly seminar format using videoconference links between anaesthesiology faculty and graduate students at the Atlantic Veterinary College and other Canadian veterinary colleges.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
LECTURES: 2 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VCA 8440 CLINICS IN DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING I
This course provides initial training in veterinary diagnostic imaging. Students will observe, perform, and dictate routine diagnostic imaging studies with particular emphasis given to routine radiography and ultrasonography. Dictation will be supervised by faculty. Students will evaluate appropriateness of diagnostic imaging clinical studies on an individual case basis. They will provide quality assurance of examinations with guidance by the diagnostic imaging faculty. Topics discussed: Positioning and quality control of routine radiographic small, large, and exotic imaging studies; proper dictation techniques, ultrasonographic applications, techniques, and interpretation principles; radiation safety. Students will be expected to provide some emergency duty for the diagnostic imaging service.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VCA 8450 CLINICS IN DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING II
This course provides continued training in veterinary diagnostic imaging. Students will perform and dictate routine diagnostic imaging studies with particular emphasis given to routine radiography and ultrasonography. This course also serves as an introduction to Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Nuclear Scintigraphy. Students will observe, perform, and dictate studies in these modalities. Dictation will be supervised by faculty. Students will evaluate appropriateness of diagnostic imaging clinical studies on an individual case basis. They will provide quality assurance of all modalities with guidance by the diagnostic imaging faculty. Topics discussed: Positioning and quality control of Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Nuclear Scintigraphy; proper dictation techniques, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Nuclear Scintigraphy applications, techniques and interpretation principles; imaging artifacts, special procedures. Students will be expected to provide some emergency duty for the diagnostic imaging service.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and VCA 8440
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
VCA 8452 CLINICS IN DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING III
This course is given in any academic semester based on student enrolment & provides training in clinical veterinary diagnostic imaging. Students in this course will work under the direction of the radiologist on clinical duty, developing interpretation skills in diagnostic radiography of the thorax, abdomen & musculoskeletal systems. The student will also be introduced to diagnostic ultrasound and will learn basic skills of abdominal ultrasonography. Report writing skills will also be emphasized. Students will participate in Journal Club/Chapter Reading activities, as well as rounds with clinical year undergraduate veterinary students. Specified non-clinical weeks will support the development of clinical skills. After hours duties may be expected.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and VCA 8450 and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (Credits based on at least 6 to 7 hours/week of teaching rounds/seminars).
Note:  Intended for graduate students in a clinical discipline.
VCA 8453 CLINICS IN DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING IV
This course is given in any academic semester based on student enrolment and provides further training in clinical veterinary diagnostic imaging. Students in this course will work under the direction of the radiologist on clinical duty, further developing their interpretation skills in diagnostic radiography. The student will continue to perform preliminary diagnostic ultrasound studies of the abdomen and will be introduced to other studies including thoracic and musculoskeletal ultrasonography. Report writing skills will continue to be emphasized. Students will participate in Journal Club/Chapter Reading activities, as well as rounds with clinical year undergraduate veterinary students. Specified non-clinical weeks will support the development of clinical skills. After hours duties may be expected.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and VCA 8452 and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (Credits based on at least 6 to 7 hours/week of teaching rounds/seminars).
Note:  Intended for graduate students in a clinical discipline.

VCA 8460 ALTERNATIVE IMAGING – TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS
This course is a detailed study of alternative imaging techniques used in veterinary medicine. Topics included: Ultrasonography, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Nuclear Scintigraphy to include methods of image formation and display, imaging principles, with particular emphasis given to clinical applications (indications, equipment/instrumentation, common artifacts, scanning protocols, principles of interpretation, and appearance of various diseases with the various modalities).
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours

VCA 8470 MINIMALLY INVASIVE & INTERVENTIONAL SURGERY
This course provides advanced training in small animal minimally invasive and interventional surgery. Students are instructed in the pathophysiology of surgical diseases of the musculoskeletal system, respiratory, vascular, gastrointestinal, endocrine, and urogenital systems in relation to minimally invasive and interventional techniques. Preoperative diagnostic evaluation, surgical techniques and postoperative case management will be discussed in relation to the pathophysiology of disease. Students will be expected to use refereed journal articles and approved textbooks throughout this course. Advanced surgical procedures will be performed using cadavers and models in the laboratory component.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (Credits based on 3 hours of classroom/clinical instruction per week and 9 hours of laboratory time).

VCA 8510 ANATOMY AND PHYSICS OF DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING
This course will provide the student with an in-depth review of radiographic, ultrasonographic and cross-sectional anatomy, as well as basic physics uses in diagnostic imaging. Topics presented include: current anatomic nomenclature, radiographic anatomy of the axial and appendicular musculoskeletal system, cardiovascular system, nervous system, digestive system and urogenital system, as well as athrology, comparative anatomy, and embryology. All of the aforementioned topics will be in regards to radiographic, sonographic, and cross-sectional anatomy. Production and physical properties of X-rays, equipment and accessories, darkroom, computed and digital radiography, radiographic quality, artifacts, and technique chart formation.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate courses in anatomy and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
LECTURES: 3 hours

VCA 8520 CLINICS IN ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING I
This course provides advanced training in all currently used diagnostic imaging modalities. The student will be expected to provide quality assurance of all imaging examinations with guidance from faculty as needed. The student will dictate most imaging studies in consultation with the imaging faculty. Topics discussed: interpretation of various disease processes diagnosed by any imaging modality. Students will be expected to provide some emergency duty for the diagnostic imaging service.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and VCA 8440 and 8450
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VCA 8530 CLINICS IN ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING II
This course provides continued advanced training in all currently used diagnostic imaging modalities. The student will be expected to provide quality assurance of all imaging examinations. The student will dictate most imaging studies in consultation with the imaging faculty. Topics discussed: in-depth discussions of various disease processes diagnosed by any imaging modality. Students will be expected to provide some emergency duty for the diagnostic imaging service.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and VCA 8520
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VCA 8532 CLINICS IN ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING III
This course is given in any academic semester based on student enrolment and provides further training in clinical veterinary diagnostic imaging. Students in this course will work under the clinical duty radiologist, further developing their interpretation skills in diagnostic radiography, as well as ultrasound skills. The student may assist with special procedures cases, if applicable. Progression in report writing skills will be expected.  Students will be introduced to computed tomography in this course.  Regular participation in Journal Club/Chapter Reading activities is expected, as is participation in rounds with clinical year undergraduate veterinary students. Specified non-clinical weeks will support the development of clinical skills. After hours duties may be expected.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and VCA 8530 and permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (Credits based on at least 6 to 7 hours/week of teaching rounds/seminars).

VCA 8533 CLINICS IN ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING IV
This course is given in any academic semester based on student enrolment and provides more advanced training in clinical veterinary diagnostic imaging. Students in this course will work under the clinical duty radiologist, further developing their interpretation and technical skills in diagnostic radiography, diagnostic ultrasound, special procedures and computed tomography. Progression in report writing skills will be expected. Students will be introduced to magnetic resonance imaging in this course.  Regular participation in Journal Club/Chapter Reading activities is expected, as is participation in rounds with clinical year undergraduate veterinary students. Specified non-clinical weeks will support the development of clinical skills. After hours duties may be expected.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and VCA 8532 and permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (Credits based on at least 6 to 7 hours/week of teaching rounds/seminars).

VCA 8540 DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING – SPECIAL PROCEDURES
This course will provide the student with alternative imaging methods and diagnostic tests that may complement or supercede plain film radiography. Indications, contra- indications, technical aspects, standard imaging protocols (including positioning), and principles of interpretation of various imaging studies will be presented. Specific topics presented include: contrast media, esophagography, upper GI series, gastrography, colonography, excretory urography, cystography, urethrography, vaginourethrography, myelography, angiocardiography, venography, lymphangiography, valvuloplasty, valvular embolization techniques, arthrography, fistulography, stress radiography, peritoneography, and stress radiographic techniques.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours


VCA 8550 PATHOPHYSIOLOGY, RADIATION BIOLOGY, SAFETY AND ARTIFACTS
This course provides a detailed study of physiology/pathophysiology as it relates to various veterinary diseases, as well as an introduction to radiation biology, safety, and artifacts. Specific topics include: Physiology and pathophysiology of specific organ systems: Alimentary, cardiovascular, central nervous system, musculoskeletal system, respiratory system, urogenital system, endocrine system. Radiation biology, oncology/tumor biology, radiation monitoring, and radiation protection.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
LECTURES: 3 hoursVCA 8551 PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF SOFT TISSUE DISEASES
This course provides advanced training in small animal surgery. Students are instructed in the pathophysiology of surgical diseases of the thoracic and abdominal cavities including respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, endocrine, urogenital and dermatologic systems. Preoperative diagnostic evaluation, surgical techniques and postoperative case management will be discussed in relation to the pathophysiology of disease. Students will be expected to use refereed journal articles and approved textbooks throughout this course. Advanced surgical procedures will be performed using cadavers and models in the laboratory component.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3  (Credits based on 3 hours of classroom/clinical instruction per week and 9 hours of laboratory time).


VCA 8552 PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF ONCOLOGIC DISEASES
This course provides advanced training in small animal surgery. Students are instructed in the pathophysiology of surgical oncologic diseases of the musculoskeletal system, respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, endocrine, urogenital and dermatologic systems. Preoperative diagnostic evaluation, surgical techniques and postoperative case management will be discussed in relation to the pathophysiology of disease. Students will be expected to use refereed journal articles and approved textbooks throughout this course. Advanced surgical procedures will be performed using cadavers and models in the laboratory component.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3  (Credits based on 3 hours of classroom/clinical instruction per week and 9 hours of laboratory time).

VCA 8600 RESEARCH PROJECT (MVSc Program)
Each student in the MVSc program is required, under the supervision of a graduate faculty committee, to satisfactorily complete a research project. The project may be based on either a clinical investigation or a special topic such as a prospective or retrospective case study. The project report should make some contribution to the body of knowledge in that field and it should lead to a paper suitable for publication in a refereed journal.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and successful admission into a small animal medicine residency training program in the Department of Companion Animals, AVC.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 6

VCA 8810-8820 DIRECTED STUDIES
This course is a thorough study of a selected problem or topic in the discipline. The course may include directed reading, directed research, or collection and analysis of data. The student will prepare a written report and present a seminar on the topic.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1-3

VCA 8900 SEMINAR
In this course students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to Master of Science program
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

VCA 9900 SEMINAR
This is a seminar course in which students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to PhD program
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

HEALTH MANAGEMENT COURSES

VHM 8010 VETERINARY BIOSTATISTICS
This course provides the student with a working knowledge of the basic statistical techniques used in veterinary science. Topics include descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, non-parametric statistics, analysis of variance, regression and correlation and experimental design.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
LABORATORIES: 2 hours

VHM 8020 ADVANCED VETERINARY BIOSTATISTICS
This course covers linear and logistic models, i.e. multiple linear and logistic regression and analysis of variance procedures for analysis of continuous and dichotomous outcomes with respect to multiple factors or explanatory variables. In addition, the course gives an introduction to experimental design and to analysis of data from complex experimental designs with multiple levels of variation or repeated measurements. The course is partially taught in conjunction with VHM 8120.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 8010 or permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2 or 3
LECTURES/SEMINARS: 2 hours
LABORATORIES: 3 hours

VHM 8110 EPIDEMIOLOGY I
This course provides students with an understanding of epidemiologic principles and methods with an emphasis on the concepts used in population health research. Specific topics covered include observational study design, sampling, measures of disease frequency, measures of association, validity (bias), confounding and stratified analyzes, screening tests and the design of clinical trials.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 4
LECTURES/SEMINARS: 5 hours
LABORATORIES: 1 hour

VHM 8120 EPIDEMIOLOGY II
This course provides students with a more detailed understanding of epidemiologic study design principles and a working knowledge of many multivariable statistical methods used in epidemiologic research. Specific topics covered include: linear regression, logistic regression, Poisson models, analysis of survival data, design of observational studies and validity (bias). The course is partially taught in conjunction with VHM 8020.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 8010, VHM 8110 or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: Four
LECTURES/SEMINARS: 5 hours
LABORATORIES: 1 hour

VHM 8220 POPULATION MEDICINE IN AQUACULTURE
This course covers current developments in finfish, crustacean and bivalve clinical health management with a particular focus on the epidemiology of infectious and non-infectious production problems. The lecture and seminar course topics include disease surveillance, diagnostic test evaluation, investigation of causal factors and evaluating health management practices. Field trips to aquaculture sites in the Atlantic Canada region are necessary.
PREREQUISITE: DVM, VPM 8110 (or equivalent) and VHM 8110 and permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
LAB/SEMINARS: 2 hours

VHM 8230 HEALTH AND PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT IN SHELLFISH AND CRUSTACEAN AQUACULTURE
This course covers the principles and application of health and production management and practices of significant shellfish aquaculture species in Atlantic Canada, and crustacean aquaculture globally. Topics include the biology, production methods, diagnosis, treatment and management of production and disease problems, and aquatic ecosystem health. Field trips to aquaculture sites occur.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 Hours
LAB/SEMINARS: 1 Hour

VHM 8260 LARGE ANIMAL CLINICAL PRACTICE I
This course provides advanced training in large animal internal medicine, surgery, theriogenology and equine community practice and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of board certified diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS, ACT, ABVP-Equine), students spend 8 weeks in large animal clinical services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat food animal and equine patients. Topics discussed in rounds include surgical techniques, surgical anatomy, preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.  This course is graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VHM 8270 LARGE ANIMAL CLINICAL PRACTICE II
This course provides additional advanced training in large animal internal medicine, surgery, theriogenology and equine community practice and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS, ACT, ABVP-Equine), students spend 12 weeks in large animal clinical services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat food animal and equine patients. Topics discussed in rounds include surgical techniques, surgical anatomy, preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.  This course is graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 8280 LARGE ANIMAL CLINICAL PRACTICE III
This course provides more advanced training in large animal internal medicine, surgery, theriogenology and equine community practice and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS, ACT, ABVP-Equine), students spend 12 weeks in large animal clinical services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat food animal and equine patients. Topics discussed in rounds include surgical techniques, surgical anatomy, preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.  This course is graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 8310 TOPICS IN BIOSTATISTICS AND EPIDEMIOLOGY
This course reviews current developments in frequently used statistical techniques and introduces the student to some advanced biostatistical techniques including survival analysis, factor analysis, and general linear models.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 8010 or VHM 8020 (preferred) and permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
LECTURES: 2 hours

VHM 8320 SELECTED TOPICS IN BIOSTATISTICS AND EPIDEMIOLOGY
This course reviews current developments in frequently used statistical techniques and introduces the student to advanced biostatistical techniques such as multilevel modelling, survival analysis, or Bayesian methodology.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 8010 or VHM 8020 (preferred) and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1
LECTURES: 1 hour

VHM 8330 INTRODUCTION TO QUANTITATIVE RISK ANALYSIS APPLIED TO ANIMAL AND VETERINARY PUBLIC HEALTH
This course will cover the concepts of quantitative risk analysis based on stochastic simulation, and its application in a regulatory context for estimation of risk associated with live animal and animal food products. An introduction to qualitative risk analysis is included, contrasting the main advantages and disadvantages of quantitative and qualitative risk assessment. The course will introduce the concepts of scenario pathway modelling, probability distributions, statistical distributions applied in risk assessment, parameter estimation, uncertainty and variability analysis, sensitivity analysis, and use of risk assessment as decision support tool.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 8010, VHM 8110 or permission of the instructor
LECTURES: 3 hours

VHM 8340 INTRODUCTION TO QUANTITATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT IN ANIMAL HEALTH AND FOOD SAFETY
This introductory online course will cover the basic concepts of quantitative risk assessment applied to animal health and food safety. The course will introduce the following concepts: scenario-pathway modeling, food-processing models, probability distributions applied in risk assessment, uncertainty and variability analysis, sensitivity analysis, and use of risk assessment as a decision support tool.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 8010, VHM 8110 or permission of the instructor
LECTURES (tutorials, videos and forum discussions): 2 hours/day
LABORATORIES (minor assignments and discussion forums): 1 hour/day
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VHM 8350 ADVANCED LARGE ANIMAL TOPICS I
This fall semester lecture/seminar course reviews recent advances in large animal internal medicine, surgery, and theriogenology at a level appropriate for post-graduate veterinary interns. The course meets three times a week and includes a mix of instructor- and student-directed in-depth discussions of complicated clinical cases and relevant current literature in large animal medicine, surgery and theriogenology. Students are evaluated on their case/paper selection, critical reading skills, presentation skills, and participation in discussions. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.  This course is graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 8360 ADVANCED LARGE ANIMAL TOPICS II
This winter semester lecture/seminar course reviews recent advances in large animal internal medicine, surgery, and theriogenology at a level appropriate for post-graduate veterinarians undergoing advanced clinical training. The course meets three times a week and includes a mix of instructor- and student-directed in-depth discussions of complicated clinical cases and relevant current literature in large animal medicine, surgery and theriogenology. Students are evaluated on their case/paper selection, critical reading skills, presentation skills, and participation in discussions. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.  This course is graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 8370 CLINICAL CASE PRESENTATION AND PROJECT REPORT
In this course students present a seminar to the AVC community during the Clinical Conference course on a clinical case relevant to their discipline. Students must also attend presentations by others in this course. In addition, they must submit a written report on a topic of their choice (clinical case report, clinical investigation, prospective or retrospective case study, literature review, etc.) approved by their supervisor prior to the conclusion of their program. The report should make a contribution to the body of knowledge in the candidate’s field. Publication in a refereed journal is encouraged but not required. Students are assessed utilizing standardized rubrics for the two course components.  This course is graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VHM 8410 BOVINE THERIOGENOLOGY
This course involves advanced training in bovine theriogenology with emphasis placed on areas that are of most benefit to individual students. Topics include: applied reproductive physiology of cattle, control of the estrous cycle and ovulation, diseases and conditions affecting the reproductive system of cattle, and reproductive efficiency in cattle management. Any necessary training in diagnostic techniques, including breeding soundness evaluation, is provided. Embryo transfer and advanced reproductive technologies are discussed. Students participate in herd visits to dairy and beef farms and are involved in bovine reproduction cases that are presented to the veterinary teaching hospital.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VHM 8420 EQUINE THERIOGENOLOGY
This course involves advanced training in equine theriogenology with emphasis placed on areas that are of most benefit to individual students. Topics include: applied reproductive physiology of horses, control of the estrous cycle and ovulation, diseases and conditions affecting the reproductive system of horses, and breeding management. Any necessary training in diagnostic techniques, including breeding soundness evaluation, is provided. Embryo transfer and advanced reproductive technologies are discussed. Students are also involved in equine reproduction cases that are presented to the veterinary teaching hospital.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINAR: 6 hours

VHM 8430 EQUINE BREEDING FARM THERIOGENOLOGY
This course involves advanced training in equine theriogenology with emphasis placed on theriogenology as practised on breeding farms. Any necessary training in diagnostic techniques is provided. Students participate in visits to equine stud farms at the height of the breeding season and are involved in equine reproduction cases that are presented to the veterinary teaching hospital.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINAR: 6 hours

VHM 8450 LARGE ANIMAL SURGERY
The course involves advanced training in veterinary surgery with emphasis on food animal and equine general surgery. Emphasis is placed on areas that are of most benefit to individual students. Topics include: surgery of the skin and adnexa, orthopaedic-related surgery, abdominal surgery, respiratory tract surgery, and urogenital surgery. Any necessary additional training in diagnostic evaluation of surgical cases is provided. Students are involved in cases admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, and those examined at farms and training facilities.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree; permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 hours

VHM 8460 EQUINE SURGERY AND LAMENESS
The course involves advanced training in equine surgery with emphasis on orthopedic and soft tissue surgery. Emphasis is placed on areas that are of most benefit to individual students. Topics include: surgery of the skin and adnexa, orthopedic related surgery, lameness evaluation, abdominal surgery, respiratory tract surgery, and urogenital surgery. Any necessary additional training in diagnostic evaluation of surgical or lameness cases is provided. Students are involved in cases admitted to the veterinary teaching hospital, and cases examined at farms and training facilities.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINAR: 6 hours

VHM 8470 ANIMAL WELFARE
This course provides graduate students with an understanding of the principles of animal welfare. Animal welfare concepts are introduced and the role of science in approaching ethical issues is discussed. The course emphasizes how an understanding of affective states is fundamental to understanding animal welfare. Methods of welfare assessment are reviewed. The welfare implications of the management of animals in different situations are discussed by a systematic consideration of the management risk factors that can affect various welfare outcomes when animals are kept or used in different situations. Animal welfare research methods are critically appraised.
PREREQUISITE:  Permission by instructor
LECTURE:  0.5 hours of lecture per week; Student presentations and discussions 2 hours per week
HOURS OF CREDIT:  2

VHM 8480 ADVANCED CLINICS IN LARGE ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE I
This course provides training in large animal internal medicine and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of an ACVIM diplomate, students spend 12 weeks on the large animal medicine clinical service in the VTH. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat food animal and equine patients. Topics discussed in rounds include preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc. Students are required to present an in-depth analysis of a clinical case once monthly in house officer rounds. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITES: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINAR: 6 hours

VHM 8490 ADVANCED CLINICS IN LARGE ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE II
This course provides advanced training in large animal internal medicine and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under the supervision of an ACVIM diplomate, students spend 12 weeks on the large animal medicine clinical service in the VTH. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat food animal and equine patients. Topics discussed in rounds include preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc. Students are required to present an in-depth analysis of a clinical case once monthly in house officer rounds. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITES: VHM 8480, DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINAR: 6 hours

VHM 8510 TOPICS IN ANIMAL NUTRITION
This course reviews a selection of new developments in ruminant and non-ruminant nutrition. Research papers in the discipline are critically evaluated.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor
SEMINARS: 2 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VHM 8600 RESEARCH PROJECT (MVSc program)
Each student in the MVSc program is required, under the supervision of a graduate faculty committee, to satisfactorily complete a small research project. The project may be based on either a clinical investigation or a special topic such as a prospective or retrospective case study. The project report should make some contribution to the body of knowledge in that field and it should lead to a paper suitable for publication in a refereed journal.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 6

VHM 8620 ADVANCED CLINICS IN FOOD ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE
This course provides in-depth training in food animal internal medicine and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under supervision of an ACVIM diplomate, students spend 9 weeks in the large animal medicine clinical service at the AVC and 3 weeks in the food animal medicine and surgery service at the University of Montreal, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Students will also be given the opportunity to spend time with the farm services section of the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat food animal patients. Topics discussed in daily rounds include preventative medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc. Students are required to present an in-depth analysis of a food animal clinical case once monthly in house officer rounds. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITES: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 hours
LAB/SEMINAR: 6 hours

VHM 8630 ADVANCED CLINICS IN EQUINE INTERNAL AND PREVENTATIVE MEDICINE
This course provides in-depth training in equine internal and preventative medicine and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under supervision of an ACVIM diplomate, students spend 11 weeks in the large animal medicine clinical service at the AVC and one week in equine dentistry. Students will also be given the opportunity to spend time with the equine ambulatory services section of the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat equine patients. Topics discussed in daily rounds include preventative medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc. Students are required to present an in- depth analysis of an equine clinical case once monthly in house officer rounds, with at least one case emphasizing preventative medicine. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITES: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 hours
LAB/SEMINAR: 6 hours

VHM 8640 RECENT ADVANCES IN LARGE ANIMAL MEDICINE I
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in internal medicine and the physiologic mechanisms underlying health and disease of large animals, at a level appropriate for the first year of an internal medicine MSc/MVSc-Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor-and student-directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent, and permission of the instructor
LECTURES or SEMINAR: 1 hour
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 8650 RECENT ADVANCES IN LARGE ANIMAL MEDICINE II
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in internal medicine and the physiologic mechanisms underlying health and disease of large animals, at a level appropriate for the second year of an internal medicine MSc/MVSc-Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor-and student-directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent, VHM 8640 and permission of the instructor
LECTURES or SEMINAR: 1 hour
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 8660 RECENT ADVANCES IN LARGE ANIMAL MEDICINE III
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in internal medicine and the physiologic mechanisms underlying health and disease of large animals, at a level appropriate for the third year of an internal medicine MVSc-Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor-and student-directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent, VHM 8650 and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES or SEMINAR: 1 hour

VHM 8670 RECENT ADVANCES IN LARGE ANIMAL SURGERY I
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in surgery, lameness and surgical diseases of large animals, at a level appropriate for the first year of a surgical MSc/MVSc Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and in the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor and student directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 8680 RECENT ADVANCES IN LARGE ANIMAL SURGERY II
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in surgery, lameness and surgical diseases of large animals, at a level appropriate for the second year of a surgical MSc/MVSc – Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and in the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor and student directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent, VHM 8670, and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 8690 RECENT ADVANCES IN LARGE ANIMAL SURGERY III
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in surgery, lameness and surgical diseases of large animals, at a level appropriate for the third year of a surgical MSc/MVSc – Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and in the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor and student directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent, VHM 8680, and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 8710 HERD HEALTH AND PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT OF DAIRY CATTLE
This course provides graduate students with an understanding of the principles of Herd Health and Production Management programs, udder and foot health, control of infectious diseases, fertility, young stock rearing, and farm economics. Lab exercises include analysis of data of farms that are enrolled in the Herd Health and Production Management program of the Farm Service group of the AVC.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent and permission of the coordinator
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 hours
LECTURE/LAB: 5 hours

VHM 8720 ADVANCED CLINICS IN EQUINE WELFARE AND PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
This course provides in-depth training in equine welfare and preventive medicine and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of an ABVP (Equine) Diplomate, students spend 12 weeks in the Ambulatory Equine Service of the VTH. Topics emphasized in this course include application and understanding of the Equine Code of Practice, preventive medicine, infectious disease, dentistry and population/herd health. For this course, students are required to present an in-depth analysis of an equine clinical case once monthly in house officer rounds. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and/or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 8730 EQUINE SPORTS MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION I
This course provides training in equine sports medicine and rehabilitation and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Students are expected to be at entry level and will be working under direct supervision of an ABVP (Equine) diplomate, and will spend 12 weeks in the Ambulatory Equine Service of the VTH. Topics include diagnostic, therapeutic and rehabilitation techniques utilized to support the equine athlete from birth through adolescence, training, competition, injury, rehabilitation and retirement. Any necessary additional training in diagnostic and therapeutic techniques is provided. Students are involved in cases admitted to the VTH and those examined at farms and training facilities. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and/or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 8740 EQUINE SPORTS MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION II
This course provides more advanced training in equine sports medicine and rehabilitation and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of an ABVP (Equine) diplomate, students spend 12 weeks in the Ambulatory Equine Service of the VTH. Students are expected to work more independently in performing diagnostic, therapeutic and rehabilitation techniques utilized to support the equine athlete from birth through adolescence, training, competition, injury, rehabilitation and retirement. Any necessary additional training in diagnostic and therapeutic techniques is provided. Students are involved in cases admitted to the VTH and those examined at farms and training facilities. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and/or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 8750 RECENT ADVANCES IN EQUINE SPORTS MEDICINE AND PREVENTIVE MEDICINE I
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in equine sport and preventive medicine, at a level appropriate for the first year of an Ambulatory Equine MSc/MVSc-Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and in the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor and student directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and/or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 8760 RECENT ADVANCES IN EQUINE SPORTS MEDICINE AND PREVENTIVE MEDICINE II
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in equine sport and preventive medicine, at a level appropriate for the second year of an Ambulatory Equine MSc/MVSc-Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and in the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor and student directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and/or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 8770 RECENT ADVANCES IN EQUINE SPORTS AND PREVENTIVE MEDICINE III
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in equine sport and preventive medicine, at a level appropriate for the third year of an Ambulatory Equine MSc/MVSc-Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and in the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor and student directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITES: DVM or equivalent and/or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 8810-8820 DIRECTED STUDIES
This course is a thorough study of a selected problem or topic in the discipline. The course may include directed reading, directed research, or collection and analysis of data. The student will prepare a written report and present a seminar on the topic.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1-3

VHM 8900 SEMINAR
In this course, students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to MSc or MVSc program
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

VHM 9900 SEMINAR
This is a seminar course in which students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to PhD program
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

PATHOLOGY & MICROBIOLOGY COURSES

VPM 8020 ADVANCES IN PROTOZOOLOGY
This course is an in-depth study of recent advances in knowledge of the major protozoan parasites of animals. Lectures and seminars cover a variety of topics including developmental cycles, pathogenicity, immunogenicity, diagnostic procedures, and epidemiology of several protozoan diseases.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hour
SEMINARS: 1 hour

VPM 8110 DISEASES OF CULTURED FISH
This course reviews fish culture systems and the diseases encountered in cultured fish. The lecture and laboratory course covers culture techniques for fin fish and shell fish and the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of fish diseases.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or BSc (Biology) and permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
LABORATORIES: 2 hours

VPM 8120 RECENT ADVANCES IN IMMUNOLOGY
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to study in detail areas of immunology which reflect current interest or controversy. Major concepts in immunology are covered.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 1 hour
SEMINARS: 2 hours

VPM 8210 CONCEPTS IN VIRAL PATHOGENESIS
This is an advanced course reviewing the mechanisms by which viruses cause disease. The emphasis is on general concepts and mechanisms. Selected viral infections are used to illustrate the general concepts of virus-host interaction.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
SEMINARS: 1 hour

VPM 8220 ADVANCES IN BACTERIOLOGY
This course focuses on recent advances in the mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis and molecular microbiology. Lectures and seminars will cover well-understood topics in these areas and will include the application of biotechnology for the development of vaccines and diagnostic reagents.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate microbiology and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
SEMINARS: 1 hour

VPM 8230 DIAGNOSTIC ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY I
In this course, the student is taught necropsy techniques including how to examine animals submitted for post mortem diagnosis. Pathogenesis and morphologic diagnosis of diseases prevalent in the fall season are emphasized. The student is required to complete at least 30-50 cases. The report on every case is to include a summary of all ancillary tests done in other units of the diagnostic laboratory. Selected cases are discussed at weekly pathology rounds. In addition, the student is exposed to techniques in histology, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and macro- and micro-photography.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 8240 DIAGNOSTIC ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY II
In this course, the student gains further experience in necropsy techniques and interpretation of lesions. Pathogenesis and morphologic diagnosis of diseases prevalent in the winter are emphasized. The student is required to complete at least 30-50 cases. The report on every case is to include a summary of all ancillary tests done in other units of the diagnostic laboratory. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 8250 DIAGNOSTIC ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY III
In this course, the student is expected to gain further experience in necropsy techniques and interpretation of lesions. Pathogenesis and morphologic diagnosis of diseases prevalent in spring and summer are emphasized. The student is required to complete at least 30-50 cases. The report on every case is to include a summary of all ancillary tests done in other units of the diagnostic laboratory. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 8260 ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY
In this course, the student is expected to gain further experience in necropsy techniques and interpretation of lesions. Morphologic diagnosis of diseases prevalent in a given season is emphasized and a more in-depth discussion of their pathogenesis is expected. The student is required to complete at least 50-60 cases. The report on every case is to include a summary of all ancillary tests done in other units of the diagnostic laboratory. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds.
PREREQUISITE: VPM 8230, VPM 8240, or VPM 8250 or equivalent, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

V
PM 8270 DIAGNOSTIC CLINICAL PATHOLOGY I
In this course, initial training in diagnostic clinical pathology during the fall is provided. Interpretations and presentations of clinical biochemistry, hematology, urology and cytology samples from a variety of species are undertaken by the student. Formal case discussions and directed reading supplement the clinical material, with emphasis on diseases prevalent in the summer and fall.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 8280 DIAGNOSTIC CLINICAL PATHOLOGY II
In this course, training in diagnostic clinical pathology during the winter is provided. Interpretations and presentations of clinical biochemistry, hematology, urology and cytology samples from a variety of species are undertaken by the student. Formal case discussions and directed reading supplement the clinical material, with emphasis on diseases prevalent in the winter and spring.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 8330 ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC CLINICAL PATHOLOGY I
In this course, further experience in diagnostic clinical pathology during the fall is provided. Interpretations and presentations of clinical biochemistry, hematology, urology and cytology samples from a variety of species are undertaken by the student. Formal case discussions and directed reading supplement the clinical material, with emphasis on diseases prevalent in the summer and fall.
PREREQUISITE: VPM 8270 & VPM 8280, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 8340 ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC CLINICAL PATHOLOGY II
In this course, further experience in diagnostic clinical pathology during the winter is provided. Interpretations and presentations of clinical biochemistry, hematology, urology and cytology samples from a variety of species are undertaken by the student. Formal case discussions and directed reading supplement the clinical material, with emphasis on diseases prevalent during the winter and spring.
PREREQUISITE: VPM 8270 & VPM 8280, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 8350 SURGICAL PATHOLOGY I
In this course, the student is provided initial training in gross and microscopic examination of biopsy materials and fixed specimens submitted to the diagnostic laboratory during the fall. Morphologic diagnosis and prognosis are emphasized, especially with regard to neoplastic diseases. The student is required to complete at least 30-50 cases. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds. In addition, the student is exposed to techniques in histochemistry and immunohistochemistry.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 8360 SURGICAL PATHOLOGY II
In this course, the student is provided further training in gross and microscopic examination of biopsy materials and fixed specimens submitted to the diagnostic laboratory during the winter. Morphologic diagnosis and prognosis are emphasized, especially with regard to neoplastic diseases. The student is required to complete at least 30-50 cases. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds. In addition, the student is exposed to techniques in histochemistry and immunohistochemistry.
PREREQUISITE: DVM degree or equivalent, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 8370 SURGICAL PATHOLOGY III
In this course, the student is provided further training in gross and microscopic examination of biopsy materials and fixed specimens submitted to the diagnostic laboratory during the spring and summer. Morphologic diagnosis and prognosis are emphasized, especially with regard to neoplastic diseases. The student is required to complete at least 30-50 cases. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds. In addition, the student is exposed to techniques in histochemistry and immunohistochemistry.
PREREQUISITE: DVM degree or equivalent, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 8380 ADVANCED SURGICAL PATHOLOGY
In this course, the student is provided a more advanced training in gross and microscopic examination of biopsy materials and fixed specimens submitted to the diagnostic laboratory during the second year of study. Morphologic diagnosis, pathogenesis and prognosis are emphasized, especially with regard to neoplastic diseases. The student is required to complete at least 50-60 cases. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds. In addition, the student is exposed to techniques in histochemistry and immunohistochemistry.
PREREQUISITE: VPM 8350, VPM 8360, or VPM 8370 or equivalent, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 8445 DIAGNOSTIC AQUATIC PATHOLOGY I
In this course, the student is taught diagnostic techniques including performing a necropsy and collecting and preparing samples from aquatic species submitted for post mortem diagnosis. Recognition of diseases, pathogenesis and morphologic diagnoses are emphasized. The student is required to complete 30 cases. The report on every case is to include a summary of all ancillary tests done in other units of the diagnostic laboratory. Selected cases are discussed at weekly pathology rounds. In addition, the student is exposed to techniques in histology, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and macro- and micro-photography.  This course is restricted to holders of a DVM or equivalent degree.
PREREQUISITE:  Permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 4
LECTURE/LAB:  8 hours

VPM 8450 DIAGNOSTIC BACTERIOLOGY
In this course students gain “hands-on” experience in clinical veterinary bacteriology. Various bacteria associated with disease conditions in animals are identified using microscopic (including fluorescent microscopy), cultural and biochemical methods. Emphasis is placed on study of case histories, and interpretation of results including antimicrobial susceptibility data. Other responsibilities include familiarization with new diagnostic techniques, and completion of 30 cases by each student.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 8460 DIAGNOSTIC BACTERIOLOGY II
In this course students gain additional “hands-on” experience in clinical veterinary bacteriology. Various bacteria associated with disease conditions in animals are identified using microscopic (including fluorescent microscopy), cultural and biochemical methods. Emphasis is placed on study of case histories, and interpretation of results including antimicrobial susceptibility data. Other responsibilities include familiarization with new diagnostic techniques, and completion of 30 cases by each student.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 8470 DIAGNOSTIC VETERINARY VIROLOGY I
This practical course deals with the isolation and identification of viruses in cell culture, chick embryos or animals and their detection using immunoassays. The student is required satisfactorily to complete about 60 cases. In weekly discussions, special emphasis is also placed on understanding approaches to the diagnosis of viral diseases, sterilization, disinfection and biosafety, sterile technique in collection of specimens, and processing, packaging and shipment of specimens for virus diagnosis.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LABORATORY: 5 hours
SEMINAR: 0.5
TUTORIAL: 0.5

VPM 8480 DIAGNOSTIC VETERINARY VIROLOGY II
This practical course deals with the isolation and identification of viruses in cell culture, chick embryos or animals and their detection using immunoassays. Tutorials utilize selected clinical cases to familiarize the student with the interpretation of laboratory test results. Current trends in diagnostic virology, serology and vaccinology are covered in group discussions on assigned readings in scientific literature.
PREREQUISITE: VPM 8470 and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 2 hours
TUTORIAL: 4 hours

VPM 8490 DIAGNOSTIC IMMUNOLOGY
This course covers a variety of immunodiagnostic techniques. Principles of serologic techniques and their application to disease diagnosis are discussed. The development of these techniques and their validation is covered in lecture and during laboratory sessions. Principles of immunohistological testing for both infectious diseases and for immunological diseases are discussed with relevant clinical examples, as are other immunochemical tests for immune-mediated disease.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
LAB/SEMINARS: 2 hours

VPM 8520 DIAGNOSIS OF WILDLIFE DISEASES
In this two-semester course, the student is taught necropsy and investigative techniques for the diagnosis of disease in free-living and zoo mammals (land and marine) and birds. Participation in additional laboratory procedures is encouraged. The student is required to satisfactorily complete between 40 and 50 cases. The report on every case is to include a summary of all ancillary tests done in other units of the diagnostic laboratory, and brief comments on the significance of the disease diagnosed. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 3 hours

VPM 8540 DIAGNOSIS OF WILDLIFE DISEASES I
In this introductory course, students are taught necropsy and investigative techniques for the diagnosis of diseases in free- living wild animals (mammals, birds, and occasional reptiles and amphibians) submitted for post-mortem examination. Pathogenesis and morphologic diagnosis of diseases and their management implications are emphasized. Students are also encouraged to review collections of gross and histopathological slides of common wildlife diseases in the region and elsewhere.

VPM 8550 DIAGNOSIS OF WILDLIFE DISEASES II
In this course, the student gains further experience in necropsy techniques, interpretation of lesions, and evaluation of the significance of the diseases identified in individual wild animals for the rest of the population. The student is also encouraged to either write and submit one article for the newsletter of the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre or give an oral presentation on a pertinent wildlife health topic at the Departmental level or at meetings of provincial Departments of Natural Resources, subject to approval by the instructor.
PREREQUISITE: VPM 8540

VPM 8560 DIAGNOSIS OF WILDLIFE DISEASES III
In this course, students are expected to gain further experience in necropsy techniques, interpretation of lesions, and evaluation of the significance of the diseases identified in individual wild animals for the rest of the population, with increasingly independent work performance (necropsy, analysis, and interpretation of diagnostic cases). Students are encouraged to either write and submit one article for the newsletter of the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre or give an oral presentation on a pertinent wildlife health topic at the Departmental level or at meetings of provincial Departments of Natural Resources (subject to approval of the instructor).
PREREQUISITES: VPM 8540 and VPM 8550

VPM 8570 DIAGNOSIS OF WILDLIFE DISEASES IV
In this course, students are expected to gain further experience in necropsy techniques, interpretation of lesions, and evaluation of the significance of the diseases identified in individual wild animals for the rest of the population, with a high degree of independent work performance (necropsy, analysis and interpretation of diagnostic cases). Students are required to either write and submit one article for the newsletter of the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre or give an oral presentation on a pertinent wildlife health topic at the Departmental level or at meetings of provincial Departments of Natural Resources (subject to approval of the instructor).
PREREQUISITES: VPM 8530, 8540 and 8560

VPM 8600 RESEARCH PROJECT (MVSc PROGRAM)
Each student in the MVSc program is required, under the supervision of a graduate faculty committee, to complete satisfactorily a small research project in the second year of study. The project may be based on either a laboratory investigation or a special topic such as a prospective or retrospective case study. The project report should make some contribution to the body of knowledge in that field and it should lead to a paper suitable for publication in a refereed journal.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 6
LAB/SEMINARS: 12 hours

VPM 8620 CELLULAR PATHOLOGY
This course is an in-depth study of cellular pathology. Lectures and seminars centre around a variety of topics including immunopathology, inflammation, healing disorders of cell growth, cell degeneration and cell necrosis. Both mammalian and ectothermic aquatic animal systems are discussed.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of Course Coordinator.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
SEMINARS: 1 hour

VPM 8630 ADVANCED RESPIRATORY PATHOLOGY
This course involves advanced training in veterinary and comparative respiratory pathology, with emphasis on mechanisms of disease. This advanced course provides residents and graduate students with an in-depth understanding of the respiratory defence mechanism, host response to injury, inflammation, pathogenesis of diseases and animal models of human disease. The course consists of formal lectures and independent work by the graduate students describing microscopic lesions (histopathology). Two seminars will be presented by the graduate student.
PREREQUISITE: Permission by the instructor.
LECTURES: 2 hours
LAB/SEMINARS: 2 hours
TUTORIALS: 2
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VPM 8710 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY TECHNIQUES
This course introduces students to basic techniques involved in recombinant DNA research and their application to the genetic analysis of animal viruses and other pathogens of veterinary importance. Students learn the principles and practical aspects of molecular biology techniques through lectures (2 hrs./wk.), and hands-on-experience (6 hrs.+/wk.). Emphasis is placed on the following topics: techniques for the manipulation of nucleic acids, hybridization methods, gene cloning, DNA sequencing, gene expression, and PCR technology.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 4
LECTURES: 2 hours
LABORATORIES: 6 hours

VPM 8720 ADVANCED HELMINTHOLOGY
This course is an in-depth study of helminth taxonomy/morphology and recent advances in knowledge of the major helminth parasites of wild and domestic animals. Identification of helminth parasites recovered at necropsy and on histologic sections is taught through lecture and laboratories. Additional lecture/laboratory topics include field and laboratory techniques used in the study of helminth infections and recent advances in disease pathogenesis, life cycle transmission, diagnostic procedures and immunology of helminth parasites.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
LABORATORIES: 2 hours

VPM 8810-8820 DIRECTED STUDIES
This course is a thorough study of a selected problem or topic in the discipline. The course may include directed reading, directed research, or collection and analysis of data. The student will prepare a written report and present a seminar on the topic.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1-3

VPM 8850 BIOINFORMATICS FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS
In addition to participating in all the lectures and activities of the undergraduate course CS 3220/BIO 3220, graduate students are expected to accomplish a graduate project and attend extra guest lectures specially prepared for graduate students (when the graduate enrolment is 3 or more). The graduate project would be related to the student’s research, so the thesis supervisor will be invited to join in the process of choosing and evaluating the graduate project. The graduate project will be worth 30% of the final grade.
Cross-level listed with CS 3220, BIO 3220, and HB 8850
PREREQUISITE: Admission to the graduate program and permission of the instructor
Note: No student can be awarded more than one course credit among HB 8850, VPM 8850, CS 3220, and BIO 3220

VPM 8900 SEMINAR
In this course, students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to MSc program.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

VPM 9900 SEMINAR
This is a seminar course in which students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to PhD program
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

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