Undergraduate Academic Programs / Departments / Courses

59 Biology

Biology

Biology Faculty

Donna Giberson, Professor Emerita
Kevin L. Teather, Associate Professor, Chair
Robert Hurta, Professor
Christian R. Lacroix, Professor
Pedro Quijon, Professor
Marva I. Sweeney-Nixon, Professor
Michael R. van den Heuvel, Professor
Lawrence R. Hale, Associate Professor
Marina B. Silva-Opps, Associate Professor
H. Carolyn Peach Brown, Assistant Professor
J. Patrick Murphy, Assistant Professor
P. Joel Ross, Assistant Professor
Stevan Springer, Assistant Professor
Denis Barabé, Adjunct Professor
David Cairns, Adjunct Professor
Simon Courtenay, Adjunct Professor
Michael Davies, Adjunct Professor
Bourlaye Fofana, Adjunct Professor
Adam Foster, Adjunct Professor
Xiang (Sean) Li, Adjunct Professor
Jason McCallum, Adjunct Professor
Andrew McKenzie-Gopsill, Adjunct Professor
Hai Nguyen, Adjunct Professor
Christine Noronha, Adjunct Professor
Rick Peters, Adjunct Professor
Jeremy Pittman, Adjunct Professor
Andre St-Hilaire, Adjunct Professor
Russell Wyeth, Adjunct Professor

REQUIREMENTS FOR A MAJOR IN BIOLOGY

A student enrolled in the Majors program in Biology will complete a minimum of 42 semester hours in Biology, and additional courses in Science according to the program outlined below. Students may choose to take a general Biology degree or to obtain a Life Sciences or Environmental Biology specialization. Students in the ‘pre-vet’ program should follow the Life Sciences specialization, and may select courses of interest in animal biology or other areas.

COURSE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION
Students may apply for a particular specialization any time before the end of their third year. Those that have not specified a specialization must meet the requirements for the General Biology Stream. The Life Sciences specialization may be of interest to students who intend to pursue careers or graduate studies related to veterinary medicine (‘pre-vet’), human health professions, or research/innovation in biomedical or biotechnological sciences. The Environmental Biology specialization may be of interest to students interested in careers or graduate studies related to biodiversity and conservation, or wildlife biology in the modern context of climate change and human interactions. The General Biology stream will give students a broad background in biology, with good preparation for all areas of Modern Biology.

Refer to the Specializations for course structures of all biology major specializations.

Students may apply for a particular specialization any time before the end of their third year. Those that have not specified a specialization must meet the requirements for the General Biology Stream.

GENERAL BIOLOGY STREAM

Core Biology Courses Hours Credit
Biology 1310-1320 6
Two of Biology 2020, 2040 and 2060 6
Two of Biology 2210, 2220 and 2230 6
Biology 3260 or 3820 3
Biology 3310 3
  • at least six additional Biology electives at or above the 2000-level that fit the following criteria; at least two must be at the 4000 level
18

Required courses in other departments, and electives to total 120 semester hours of credit as listed below:

LIFE SCIENCES SPECIALIZATION (including Pre-Veterinary Medicine Stream)

Core Biology Courses Hours Credit
Biology 1020 or 1030 3
Biology 1310-1320 6
Biology 2040 and 2060 6
Biology 2210 and 2230 6
Foods and Nutrition 2110 or Physics 2430 3
Biology 3260 3
Biology 3310 3
Biology 3520 or Physics 3520 3
At least five additional Biology electives at or above the 2000 level that fit the following criteria:
at least two must be at the 4000 level and be from Life Sciences;
at least an additional two must be selected from the Life Specialization list;
at least one must be selected from the Environmental or General Biology lists
15

Required courses in other departments, and electives to total 120 semester hours of credit as below:

ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY SPECIALIZATION

Core Courses Hours Credit

 

Environmental Studies 1010 3
Biology 1310-1320 6
Biology 2020, 2040 and 2060 9
Biology 2220 and 2230 6
Biology 3310 3
Biology 3820 3

at least six additional Biology electives at or above the 2000 level that fit the following          criteria:                                                                                                                                   18

• at least two must be at the 4000 level and from the Environmental Biology list
• at least an additional two must be selected from the Environmental Biology Specialization list
• at least two must be selected from the Life Sciences or General Biology lists

Required courses in other departments, and electives to total 120 semester hours of credit as listed below:

REQUIRED COURSES FROM OTHER DEPARTMENTS

One of UPEI 1010, 1020, or 1030

Chemistry:
Chemistry 1110 and 1120
Chemistry 2410-2420 or Chemistry 2430 (credit will not be given for both Chemistry 2430 and Chemistry 2410 or 2420)
Chemistry 3530 or Biology 2250 is required for the General Stream and Life Sciences; Chemistry 3530 or 2020 is required for Environmental Biology

Physics:
Physics 1210 (or 1110) and Physics 1220 (or 1120)

Mathematics and Statistics:
Math 1120 or Math 1910
Stat 1210
Note: Some students may wish to take upper level Mathematics, Chemistry, or Physics courses for which Mathematics 1910-1920 is required: therefore Mathematics 1910-1920 may be taken in place of Mathematics 1120 but the statistics requirement of Statistics 1210 remains. Credit will not be given for both Mathematics 1120 and Mathematics 1910.

Other electives:
The remaining number of semester hours required to complete the requirements for the Biology major (a total of 120 semester hours) will be made up from courses selected by the students.

Note: Please see Academic Regulation 14(3): Application of Certain Professional Courses.

SUGGESTED COURSE SEQUENCES

First Year
Introductory Biology (BIO 1310-1320)
Introductory Chemistry (CHEM 1110-1120)
Calculus (MATH 1120 or 1910)
Statistics (STAT 1210)
Physics for the Life Sciences (PHYS 1210 and 1220)
One of UPEI 1010, 1020, or 1030
Introductory Environmental Studies (ENV 1010) or a human or animal health course (BIO 1020 or 1030) or Electives

Second Year
Biodiversity courses (BIO 2020, 2040, 2060)
Cell and Molecular Biology and/or Ecology and/or Genetics (BIO 2210, 2220, 2230, 2240)
Organic Chemistry and Environmental Chemistry or Biochemistry (CHEM 2410-2420 or 2430; CHEM 2020; CHEM 3530 or BIO 2250)
Nutrition 2210 or Physics 2430. Students interested in a Medical and biological Physics minor should take Physics 2220, Modern Physics for Life Sciences [can also be taken in third year]
Electives (to make up 30 hours of credit)

Third Year
Core physiology or evolution (BIO 3260 or 3820)
Research Methods and Communications (BIO 3310)
Molecular Biology Research Techniques (BIO 3520) or Biomedical Imaging (PHYS 3520) [can also be taken in fourth year]
*Biology electives (2000 level or above) as indicated above for your specialization
Electives (to make up 30 hours of credit)

Fourth Year
Two Biology electives at 4000 level from the required specialization
Electives (to make up 30 hours of credit)

List of Courses that may be used towards the specialization areas in Biology

  • Courses in the “General Biology” section may be used as “alternate electives” in any specialization

  • Certain Biology 4410 (Directed studies) or 4420 (Special Topics) courses, or courses transferred from other universities for Biology credit, may be credited to one specialization or the other with prior permission of the Chair.

  • Courses that are required components for one specialization or the other (e.g. Biology 2210 and 3260 for the Life Sciences specialization; Biology 2220 and 3820 in the Environmental Biology specialization can be counted as “alternate” electives for the other specialization. Bio 2020, 2040 and 2060 may also be counted as alternate electives when not used to satisfy core requirements for either specialization in the second year.

Elective courses in the Life Sciences Specialization
*Biology 2260—Human Anatomy and Histology
Physics 2430—Physics of the Human Body
*Biology 3110—Plants and People
Biology 3750—Medical Microbiology
Biology 3220—Bioinformatics
*Biology 3230—Genetics II
*Biology 3040—Vertebrate Zoology
*Biology 3240—Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy
*Biology 3350—Animal Behaviour
*Biology 3710—Life of Mammals
*Biology 4010—Human Physiology and Pathophysiology
*Biology 4020—Comparative & Environmental Vertebrate Physiology
*Biology 4030—Developmental Biology
*Biology 4040—Endocrinology
*Biology 4050—Medical Biology
Biology 4350—Biology of Sex
Biology 4710—Molecular Biotechnology
*Biology 4720—Biology of Cancer and Other Diseases
Biology 4750—Basic and Clinical Immunology
Paramedicine 4010—Social Determinants of Health
Foods and Nutrition 4520—Aging: Biological & Lifestyle Perspectives

For current admission requirements to the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine please refer to the DVM admissions section in the Academic Calendar.

Elective courses in the Environmental Biology Specialization
*Biology 3040—Vertebrate Zoology
*Biology 3140—Plant Community Ecology
*Biology 3270—Field Coastal Ecology
*Biology 3350—Animal Behaviour
*Biology 3510—Ornithology
*Biology 3610—Biology of Fishes
*Biology 3660—Plant-Animal Interactions
*Biology 3710—Life of Mammals
*Biology 3910—Marine Biology
*Biology 4110—Wildlife Biology
*Biology 4130—Conservation Genetics
*Biology 4520—Biogeography and Macroecology
*Biology 4540—Biodiversity and Conservation Ecology
*Biology 4620—Watershed Ecology
*Biology 4650—Marine Community Ecology
*Biology 4850—Environmental Toxicology

Elective courses in the General Biology Program (can be used as “alternate” stream courses)
*Biology 2020—Botany
*Biology 2040—Zoology
*Biology 2060—Microbiology
Biology 3120—History of Biology
*Biology 3520—Molecular Biology Research Techniques
*Biology 4210—Design and Analysis of Biological Studies

REQUIREMENTS FOR HONOURS IN BIOLOGY
The Honours program in Biology is designed to provide research experience at the undergraduate level within the BSc program. It is available to students with a strong academic background who intend to continue studies at the postgraduate level in Biology or some related field, or to students who intend to pursue a career where research experience would be an asset. Students may also carry out a less intensive research project by registering for Biology 4400.

The Honours program differs from the BSc Major program in having a research and thesis component. The total number of courses is the same, five courses per semester for eight semesters, but the honours thesis course counts as 12 credits, so the total semester hours of credit for the Honours is 126, compared to 120 hours for the BSc Major. The research component is to be completed within the BSc program and would normally require the equivalent of one summer (four months) preceding the graduating year. Evaluation of the research data and writing of the thesis would normally be done during the fall and/or spring session in Biology 4900: Advanced Research and Thesis.

COURSE REQUIREMENTS OF THE HONOURS PROGRAM
Students may complete an Honours Degree in any of the three Biology streams (General, Life Sciences, and Environmental Biology). The program is the same as the Majors program with the addition of Biology 4900 and two other Biology electives (taken from any stream). These would normally be completed in the student’s final year.

FOURTH YEAR: HONOURS BIOLOGY
*Two Biology electives at 4000 level (these must be in the Life Sciences or Environmental Biology lists if students have declared a specialty)
*Two additional Biology electives at the 2000 level or above
Biology 4900 (Advanced Research and Thesis)
2 Electives
* at least four of the required Biology electives must have a laboratory component in all streams.

ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS
For admission to the Honours program or Honours Conversion program, students should have a combined minimum average of 75% in all previous courses taken in the second and third years of study; and a combined minimum average of 75% in all previous biology courses taken. Permission of the Department is also required and is contingent on the student finding a thesis advisor, on being assigned an advisory committee, on acceptance of the research project by the Biology Department, and on general acceptability. Students interested in doing Honours should consult with the Departmental Chair as early as possible and apply to the program no later than 31 March of the student’s third year.

PERFORMANCE
To graduate with a BSc Honours in Biology, students must complete 126 semester hours of credit which includes 12 semester hours of credit for the research and thesis, attain a minimum average of 75% in all Biology courses combined, and achieve a minimum overall average of 70% in all courses submitted for the degree. Students failing to meet these requirements may transfer their program to the BSc Biology Program or to other degree programs.

Note: Detailed information to students on the Honours Program is available from the Department.

REQUIREMENTS FOR MINOR IN BIOLOGY
To qualify for a minor, students must complete a total of 21 semester hours of credit in Biology, 6 semester hours of which are required courses.

The requirements for a minor in Biology are:
Biology 1310-1320 (6 hours of credit) and any 5 Biology electives at 2000 level or above (15 semester hours)
Total Semester Hours = 21

CO-OP EDUCATION in BIOLOGY

The UPEI Co-op Program is an integrated approach to university education which enables students to alternate academic terms on campus with work terms in suitable employment. The success of such programs is founded on the principle that students are able to apply theoretical knowledge from course studies in the workplace and return to the classroom with practical workplace experience. Students who successfully complete all the requirements of the program will have the notation entered on their transcripts and on the graduation parchment.

Students accepted into the program complete at least three paid work terms of normally 14 weeks duration, and three professional development courses. Credits earned through completion of work terms are counted as general electives.

The Co-op option is available to full-time students in the Biology Major or Honours program.  Applications to the Co-op Education Program are normally made after completion of the first year of study.

See the Co-operative Education Program section of the UPEI Academic Calendar for more information.

Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation

This program combines the practical, theoretical and analytical strengths of courses provided by accredited NAWTA (North American Wildlife Technology Association) programs, and by the University of Prince Edward Island, for students interested in obtaining rigorous training in wildlife conservation. Foundational science courses (e.g. General Chemistry) as well as senior analytical courses in the environmental sciences at the university level (e.g. Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, Marine Biology) complement the strong field training acquired during the college diploma program.

Students graduating from an accredited NAWTA college with a minimum 70% average are eligible to apply to UPEI for formal entry into the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation degree program. Entry to the program is restricted to September of each year and applications must be received by June 1st. Once accepted to UPEI, students will undertake a rigorous program of 20 courses, 15 of which will be required, with an additional 5 courses to be chosen from a list of acceptable electives. Students who are accepted to the program must be able to demonstrate that they have been immunized for the prevention of Rabies, or obtain a rabies vaccination during the first year of their program. Students are subject to all of the Academic Regulations of the University.

9 Core Biology courses:
Biology 1310—Introduction to Cell and Molecular Biology
Biology 2220—Ecology
Biology 3310—Research Methods and Communications in Biology
Biology 3820—Evolutionary Biology
Biology 3910—Marine Biology OR Biology 4620—Watershed Ecology
Biology 4130—Conservation Genetics
Biology 4150—Wildlife Health
Biology 4520—Biogeography and Macroecology OR Biology 4540—Biodiversity and Conservation Biology
Biology 4910—Wildlife Conservation and Environmental Management Practicum

7 Core Courses in Other Departments:
Environmental Studies 1010 – Introduction to Environmental Studies
Environmental Studies 2120 – Earth’s Physical Environment
Environmental Studies 4310 – Environmental Impact Assessment
Economics 1010 – Introductory Microeconomics
Economics 2110 – Introduction to Resource Economics
Economics 2150 – Environmental Economics
UPEI 1010 or UPEI 1020 or UPEI 1030

Students complete the degree requirements by choosing two science and two non-science electives.

BIOLOGY COURSES

(*Lab courses are indicated with an asterisk)

NOTES REGARDING 1000-LEVEL BIOLOGY COURSES

  • Biology 1310 and 1320 are Introductory Biology courses and are the prerequisites for upper level Biology courses. Take these courses if you plan to complete a Biology major or minor, or if your program requires one or both courses. Biology 1010 is not accepted for credit in the Biology Majors program.
  • Biology 1020 and 1030 are introductory courses for students in the Life Science specialization, but any student may take these courses.
  • Biology 1060 and 1220 are restricted to students enrolled in programs offered by the Faculty of Nursing and the Department of Applied Human Sciences.
  • A combined average of at least 60% is a prerequisite for all Biology courses above the 1000 level. However, this course prerequisite may also be met by the successful completion of a qualifying examination to be offered each year on the first Tuesday after Labour Day. This examination, which shall cover material from both Biology 1310 and 1320 is open to those who have passing grades for both Biology 1310 and 1320, but who do not have a combined average of at least 60%. To be admitted to Biology courses above the 1000 level, students must achieve a score of 65% on the qualifying examination. The score on the qualifying exam will not replace those attained in Biology 1310 and 1320, nor shall it be factored into any calculation of grades for graduation, scholarships or other purposes. This course prerequisite may also be waived with the permission of the Chair for individual courses.

0010 INTRODUCTION TO THE ESSENTIALS OF BIOLOGY
This is a non-credit course designed primarily for students needing an introduction to biological principles, as preparation for first year biology. Basic biological principles are introduced in relation to everyday applications, including industry and the environment. Topics include: components of cells, principles of metabolism, principles of genetics, principles of evolution and natural selection, plant and animal structure. Classes will be augmented by laboratory demonstrations. This course is required for those students planning to take Biology 1310 and/or 1320, and who did not take either Biology 11 or Biology 12 in high school.

1010 CURRENT ISSUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY
This course considers environmental problems from a biological perspective. Human ecology, populations, pollution, resource use and other topics are discussed critically.
Lectures and field trips to the equivalent of six hours a week

1020 HUMAN HEALTH
An introductory course dealing with the structure and function of the human body as the biological foundation of human health and disease. Course topics will include a survey of human organ systems and prevalent diseases of the adult human, introducing concepts of disease prevention and wellness.
Three hours lecture a week

1030 ANIMAL HEALTH
An introductory course dealing with current issues related to animal health and disease in a global context. Course topics will introduce causes of disease in animals and the principles of maintaining healthy animals, as well as an interdisciplinary overview of the role and importance of animal health in modern society.
Three hours lecture

1060 INTRODUCTORY MICROBIOLOGY FOR HEALTH SCIENCES
This course is an introduction to the basic concepts and principles of microbiology. The structure and function of the major groups—viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa—which affect human health, are studied. Topics include the process of disease transmission, immunology, physical and chemical methods of disease prevention and control, as well as major infectious diseases of the body systems.
PREREQUISITE: Registration in the Nursing or Foods and Nutrition programs or permission of the Chair
Three hours of lecture and two hours of laboratory per week
NOTES: Students will not get credit for both BIO 1060 and BIO 2060.

1210 HUMAN ANATOMY
This course covers the structure of the human body from cells to tissues to organ systems. The gross anatomy and histology of the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, lymphatic, digestive, urinary and reproductive system of humans is surveyed.
Cross-listed with Biology 2260.
Three hours lecture, 2.5 hours laboratory a week
RESTRICTION: Must be a student in the Nursing or Kinesiology program.
NOTE: Students will not get credit for both Biology 1210 and Biology 2260

1220 HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
This course deals with the functioning of the human body. The physiology of the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems is surveyed.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 1310 or Biology 1210
Three hours lecture, 2.5 hours laboratory a week

*1310 GENES, CELLS AND MACROMOLECULES
This course provides an introduction to the science of Biology, with emphasis on life processes at the cellular and molecular level. The course covers the cellular nature of life, the physical basis of heredity, development and the chemistry of life. Part of the laboratory component involves training in microscopy and molecular techniques.
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*1320 ORGANISMS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT
This course provides an introduction to the science of Biology, with emphasis on organismal biology and unifying themes. The course deals with evolution, the diversity of life, form and function, and ecology. Part of the laboratory component involves training in dissection techniques.
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*2020 BOTANY
A survey of bacteria, fungi, algae, and major plant groups (bryophytes, vascular cryptogams and seed plants) emphasizing morphology, life histories and evolutionary relationships.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*2040 ZOOLOGY
A survey of the major groups of animals, beginning with the sponges and ending with the mammals. Topics emphasize evolutionary relationships, development, structure and function, and ecology. Laboratory work includes the study of selected representatives from each of the major groups.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*2060 MICROBIOLOGY
This course deals with basic microbial biology including discussion of industrial, ecological, environmental and medical microbiology, and other relevant topics. Laboratory sessions provide training in relevant microbiology techniques/approaches.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320 or permission of the instructor. Students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program, Bachelor of Paramedicine Program, or students majoring in Foods & Nutrition may take this course after completion of Biology 1310
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
NOTE: Additional lab time may be required outside of scheduled laboratory periods.

2090 SPECIAL TOPICS
Creation of a course code for special topics offered by Biology at the 2000 level.

2210 CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
This course examines the structure and function of living cells. Topics include macromolecules, organelles, membranes, cellular energetics, cell signalling, gene expression, cell division, cell death and special topics in biomedical cell  and molecular biology.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320 or permission of the instructor. Students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program, Bachelor of Paramedicine Program or students in Applied Human Sciences may take this course after completion of Biology 1310.
Three hours lecture, one hour tutorial a week

*2220 ECOLOGY
This course introduces and discusses the basic themes and concepts of Ecology. Students examine the hierarchy of Ecology by investigating individual organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Topics covered in the course include: natural selection, energy flow, nutrient cycling, population growth, plant/animal interactions and biodiversity. The course involves reading and discussion of current and classical literature in the field. Laboratories will primarily consist of field investigations and analysis of field data.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320 or registration in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation program or permission of the instructor.
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

2230 GENETICS I
The principles of genetics are considered in a broad perspective. Topics include chromosome structure and behaviour, molecular biology and biochemistry of genes, DNA inheritance, recombination, replication and mutation, Mendelian inheritance, and inheritance of linked genes. There is a strong emphasis on problem solving, probability and statistics in tutorials.are simple Mendelian inheritance, genes as part of biochemical pathways, inheritance of linked genes, probability and statistics, DNA replication and mutation, chromosomal structure and behaviour, and recombinant DNA. There is a strong emphasis on problem solving, probability and statistics in tutorials.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320
Three hours lecture, one hour tutorial a week
NOTES: Biology majors and minors are expected to take BIO 2230. Students will not get credit for both BIO 2230 and BIO 2240.

2240 HUMAN GENETICS
The principles of genetics are considered in a broad perspective. Topics include chromosome structure and behaviour, molecular biology and biochemistry of genes, DNA replication and mutation, recombinant DNA, Mendelian inheritance, and inheritance of linked genes. There is a strong emphasis on human genetics in tutorials.
Cross-listed with Biology 2230.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 1310
RESTRICTION: Must be a student in the Paramedicine program.
Three hours lecture, one hour tutorial a week
NOTES: Students will not get credit for both BIO 2230 and BIO 2240.

2250 HUMAN BIOCHEMISTRY
This course is an introduction to the major classes of biomolecules and their main metabolic pathways. Special attention is paid to biochemistry in the context of human metabolism, nutrition and disease.
PREREQUISITE: : An average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320 and completion of Chemistry 1110. Students in the Paramedicine Program may take this course after successfully completing Biology 1310 and Chemistry 1110.
Three hours lecture a week
NOTE: Students will not get credit for both BIO-2250 and CHEM-3530.

*2260 HUMAN ANATOMY AND HISTOLOGY
This course covers the structure of the human body at both the macroscopic and microscopic levels and gives the student a thorough overview of human cells, tissues, organs and organ systems. While both anatomy and histology will be integrated throughout the course, lectures focus on gross anatomy while laboratories emphasize the structure of tissues (histology)in the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, lymphatic, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems.
Cross-listed with Biology 1210.
PREREQUISITE: An average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week
NOTE: Students will not get credit for both Biology 1210 and Biology 2260.

*3040 VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY
This course focuses on the taxonomy and evolution of vertebrates. Coverage of taxonomic orders and families may include discussion of systematics, taxonomy, evolution, palaeontology, zoogeography, and unique morphological, physiological, ecological, and behavioural characteristics. The laboratory component is dedicated to learning basic vertebrate morphology and taxonomic relationships among and within vertebrate groups using preserved specimens and dissections.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2040. Students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program may take this course after completion of Biology 1310 and Biology 2220.
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

3090 SPECIAL TOPICS
Creation of a course code for special topics offered by Biology at the 3000 level.

*3110 PLANTS AND PEOPLE
This course surveys in detail the major current uses of plants, their history, morphology, and chemistry. Laboratory periods consist of demonstrations of plant structures and products derived from plant sources, practical exercises, and field trips.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2020
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

3120 HISTORY OF BIOLOGY
This course surveys the major advances in the biological sciences from prehistory to modern times. Emphasis is placed on the effect which past ideas have had on the evolution of Biology.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320 or department permission. Students registered in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program may take this course after completion of Biology 1310.
Three hours lecture and one hour discussion group a week

*3140 PLANT COMMUNITY ECOLOGY
A study of algae, fungi and major plant groups such as bryophytes, vascular seedless and seed plants. Emphasis will be placed on identification of common species, plant taxonomy and ecology.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2220
Three hours lecture; three to four hours laboratory a week, some of which consist of field trips

*3220 INTRODUCTION TO BIOINFORMATICS
(See Computer Science 3220)

*3230 GENETICS II
The principles of genetics at a more advanced level are considered in the context of practical laboratory investigation, on-line genetic data resources, and examination of current scholarly literature. Laboratory work will be conducted with fruit flies (Drosophila) and yeast (Saccharomyces), and will include molecular biological techniques.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2230
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*3240 COMPARATIVE VERTEBRATE ANATOMY
This course builds upon some of the material presented in Biology 2040, providing students with a much more detailed look at the structure and function of various organs and organ systems of the vertebrate body. Dissections and display material are used during laboratories to allow students to compare and contrast these systems in representative vertebrates.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2040. Students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program may take this course after completion of Biology 1310 and Biology 2220.
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*3260 INTRODUCTORY PHYSIOLOGY OF CELLS AND ORGANISMS
This course introduces students to basic themes and concepts in physiology. Students explore mechanisms underlying regulatory processes in cells, and the ways organisms function. Topics include feedback systems, signalling, membrane potentials, muscle and nerve function, endocrine, cardiopulmonary and osmoregulatory form and function in animals, carbohydrate synthesis and transport in plants, and plant responses to stress.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 2210 and six semester hours of core Biology courses at the 2000 level
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*3270 FIELD COASTAL ECOLOGY
Field coastal ecology is an intensive field-oriented course designed to provide 3rd-4th year students of the Biology program with knowledge and experience surveying and monitoring the organisms and habitats best represented in coastal Prince Edward Island. Using a hands-on approach, students are expected to learn and apply the sampling protocols that are most useful to each type of habitat. Although the course will have a broad theoretical component (early daily lectures on community types and sampling design), its main focus will be on activities to be developed in the field and subsequently in the laboratory. These activities include sampling, processing, and identification or organisms collected in the most typical benthic habitats of the island.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 2020, 2040 and 2220. Students registered in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program may take this course after completion of Bio 1310 and Bio 2220.
Four hours lecture, four hours laboratory/field trips per day for two weeks (summer intensive course)

*3310 RESEARCH METHODS AND COMMUNICATIONS IN BIOLOGY
This course is an introduction to research methods and the basic principles of scientific communication, as expressed in the Biological Sciences. Lectures, exercises and assignments focus on science writing, critical reading, the principles of study design, and the analysis, interpretation, and presentation of biological data.
PREREQUISITES: Nine semester-hours of Biology courses at the 2000 level or above
Three hours lecture, Two hours laboratory a week

*3350 ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR
This course explores various aspects of animal behaviour, primarily from an evolutionary perspective. Topics covered include the development and expression of behaviour, animal communication, predator-prey interactions, reproductive and parental strategies of males and females, and the application of an evolutionary approach to the study of human behaviour. Laboratories focus on how behavioural data are collected and interpreted.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 2040 and 2220. Students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program may take this course after completion of Biology 1310 and Biology 2220.
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*3510 ORNITHOLOGY
A study of avian biology with particular emphasis on identification, behaviour, breeding biology and ecology of birds. Laboratory periods will include field trips to major habitats.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320. Students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program may take this course after completion of Biology 1310 and Biology 2220.
Two hours lecture, four hours laboratory a week
NOTE: With the permission of the instructor and the Chair, the prerequisite for this course may be waived for students not majoring in Biology.

3520 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY RESEARCH TECHNIQUES
This course introduces students to basic techniques in molecular biology and genomic science. Lectures will cover theoretical aspects of research in the biologic sciences, such as cloning, PCR, DNA sequence analysis, genomics, and proteomics. In laboratories, students will work on projects to learn current methodologies in molecular biology such as keeping laboratory notebooks, basic cloning, PCR, gel electrophoresis, use of sequence databases, and analysis of transcriptomics/proteomics datasets.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 2210, 2230 or 2240
Two hours lecture, four hours lab per week

*3610 BIOLOGY OF FISHES
An introductory course on the Biology of fishes outlining classification, comparative structure and function of the systems of major fish groups. Emphasis will be placed on the diversity, distribution, ecology and evolution of freshwater and marine fishes of the Atlantic region. Laboratory periods will involve field and laboratory studies.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320 or completion of Biology 1310 and 2510 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program.
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*3660 PLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS
This course examines evolutionary and ecological themes in plant-animal interactions by presenting some of the complex interactions that have arisen between plants and animals. The course will consist of lectures on various topics such as plant communities as animal habitats, pollination and seed dispersal by animal, ant and plant interactions, insect herbivore and host-plant interactions, seed predation, and carnivorous plants and insects, and the pivotal role of plant-animal interactions in conservation biology. The course requires presentations and discussions of the primary literature, and includes some laboratory and field projects.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 2020, 2040, and 2220 or completion of Biology 1310 and 2510 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Three hours lecture a week, three hours laboratory every other week

*3710 LIFE OF MAMMALS
This course is an introduction to the study of the animals that constitute the class Mammalia. Topics include taxonomic classification, zoogeography, reproductive strategies, ecology, behaviour, and economic considerations. Laboratory exercises include several projects involving field work with the mammalian fauna of Prince Edward Island.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 2040 and 2220 or completion of Biology 1310 and 2510 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

3750 MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY
The basic principles of microbiology, biochemistry, molecular biology/genetics are used to discuss aspects of microbial diseases with a particular focus on the specific mechanisms whereby disease occurs. Topics include drug-resistance development, resistance mechanisms, issues in infection prevention and control, and emerging pathogens.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2060 or equivalent or permission of the instructor
Three hours lecture a week

*3820 EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY
This course is designed to provide students with a better understanding of evolution and how it applies to other biology courses and to their lives in general. We first trace the rise of evolutionary thought, examining the evidence for different evolutionary processes. We then more closely examine the mechanisms that result in evolutionary change. Subsequently, we look at the history of life and examine topics such as speciation, great moments in evolution, human evolution and extinction. Lastly, we deal with the diverse areas of study that benefit from an understanding of evolution.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2220 or Biology 2230. Students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program may take this course after completion of Biology 1310 and Biology 2220.
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*3910 MARINE BIOLOGY
An introduction to the principles of Marine Biology emphasizing marine environments and organisms of PEI and the Eastern Atlantic region. Laboratory periods will involve field and laboratory studies.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 2020 and 2040. Students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program may take this course after completion of Biology 1310 and Biology 2220.
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*4010 HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY & PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
This course is an in-depth overview of the function of human organ systems emphasizing the effects of disease states. It is designed for students interested in human health professions, such as Nurse Practitioners. The course covers nervous & endocrine systems and disorders; cardio- pulmonary, blood, immune & exercise physiology and related diseases; fluid and metabolic balance and related disorders; and pregnancy. Laboratories focus on physiological principles, diseases and application of knowledge in case studies.
Cross-level listed with Nursing 6010.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 3260 or entry to the Master of Nursing, Nurse Practitioner stream, or permission of instructor
Three hours lecture, three hour laboratory a week

*4020 COMPARATIVE & ENVIRONMENTAL VERTEBRATE PHYSIOLOGY
A study of animal function emphasizing complex regulatory and metabolic mechanisms, the relationships between organ systems, and interactions between animals and their environment. Weekly laboratory exercises and a mini-research project will demonstrate experimental physiologic principles.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 2040 and 3260 or permission of instructor
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*4030 DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
This course provides a comprehensive overview of the main processes involved during the development of an organism. The primary focus of the course is the shared genetic and biochemical events that underlie the development of all organisms. Model systems are studied in order to highlight general principles of ontogeny. These principles are then examined in the development of other organisms, including humans. During laboratories students are exposed to basic techniques in modern developmental chemistry.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2210
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

4040 ENDOCRINOLOGY
This course is an in depth study of animal hormones, with a focus on modern-day endocrinology issues of interest to students. Topics include anatomy and physiology of hormones and glands, hormone actions from molecular to whole organism levels, biorhythms, reproduction and development, comparison of endocrine systems among animal classes, hormones in disease and medicine, eco-toxicological effects of hormones, and methods used to study endocrinology.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 3260. Students in the BSc Paramedicine program may take Biology 4040 after Biology 1310.
Three hours lecture

4050 MEDICAL BIOLOGY
This course extends principles of biochemistry, physiology and molecular biology in the context of human diseases and treatment. Using a case-study and discussion format, the course explores advanced studies in biochemical pathways in humans, molecular regulation of biochemistry, human diseases related to altered biochemical pathways, and pharmacology.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 1230 or 3260; Biology 2230 or 2240; and Biology 2250 or Chemistry 3530. Students in the BSc Paramedicine program may take Biology 4050 after Biology 1310.
Three hours lectures per week

*4110 PRINCIPLES OF WILDLIFE BIOLOGY
This course focuses on the basic principles of wildlife biology, wildlife management, and contemporary wildlife issues. The laboratory/field component includes an introduction to techniques used in wildlife research, habitat assessments and debates on local wildlife issues.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2020 and 2040 or completion of Biology 1310 and 2510 and registration in Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program.
Two hours lecture, four hours laboratory a week

*4130 CONSERVATION GENETICS
An introduction to the guiding principles of conservation biology and genetics, and their application to the preservation of biodiversity. Students will explore current research topics, such as ecological and landscape genetics, invasion biology, and genomics for endangered species through lectures, extensive discussion and a major paper. Laboratories may involve field trips and molecular techniques.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 2220 and Biology 2230 (Biology 3820 is a recommended co-requisite, but is not essential). Students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program may take this course after completion of Biology 1310 and Biology 2220.
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

4150 WILDLIFE HEALTH
This course examines the relationship between the health of free-living wild animals and their environment. The laboratory component of the course familiarizes the student with techniques of necropsy of a wide variety of mammalian and avian species, emphasizing comparative anatomy, recognition of basic macroscopic abnormalities, and harvesting techniques and basic identification of macroparasites.
PREREQUISITE: Registration in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program and completion of Biology 1310 and Biology 2220. Note: students must be vaccinated for rabies.
Four hours lecture, four hours laboratory per day for 2 weeks (summer intensive course)

*4210 DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF BIOLOGICAL STUDIES
This course provides students who have a previous statistics course and research methods course with experience in the practical application of analytical techniques for the ecological and life sciences. Topics include design of field and laboratory studies and examination of biological data using advanced parametric, non-parametric, and multivariate methods.
PREREQUISITE: Statistics 1210 and Biology 3310 or permission of the instructor
Three hours lecture and three hours lab per week

4350 THE BIOLOGY OF SEX
This course explores the various aspects of sexual reproduction, focussing on evolutionary questions. The course compares various modes of reproduction (asexual and sexual) and examines the important questions of why sex evolved and why it is so common among plants and animals today. Topics include sexual selection, mating strategies of males and females, sperm competition, sex ratios, and various potentially controversial aspects of human sexuality from a biological perspective. The course involves extensive discussion (including student-led discussions), reading, writing, and a major paper.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2230 (other useful courses are Biology 3350 and Biology 3820)
Three hours lecture, one hour discussion weekly

*4400 SENIOR UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH PROJECT
This course allows senior students majoring in Biology to carry out a full-year research project. The project may be lab or field based, or some combination of the two. Students work under the supervision of a faculty member and write a thesis describing the work.
PREREQUISITE: Students should be at least third year Biology Majors and have completed their second year core Biology courses. Entry to this course is contingent upon the student finding a departmental faculty member willing to supervise the research and permission of the department, no later than March 31 of their third year.
Six semester hours of credit (Credit in this course will be given only when both semesters have been completed successfully.)

4410 DIRECTED STUDIES IN BIOLOGY
Available to third year Biology Majors, preferably those who have completed their second year Biology courses. Entry to the course, and the conditions under which the course may be offered will be subject to the approval of the Chair of the Department and the Dean of Science. (See Academic Regulation 9 for Regulations Governing Directed Studies)
Three semester hours of credit

4420 SPECIAL TOPICS IN BIOLOGY
An upper year course typically designed to reflect an issue of current interest in Biology. Available to third and fourth year Biology Majors, preferably those who have completed their second year core Biology courses. The conditions under which the course may be offered will be subject to the approval of the Chair of the Department and the Dean of Science.
Three semester hours of credit

*4440 INVESTIGATIVE PLANT ANATOMY
In this course students examine the simple and complex tissues of plants throughout their life cycles. Basic and advanced concepts pertaining to microscopy are taught. Students prepare material for both light and scanning electron microscopy. Innovative techniques in microscopy and preparation of photographic plates suitable for publication are also covered.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2020
Two hours lecture, four hours laboratory a week

*4520 BIOGEOGRAPHY AND MACROECOLOGY
This course examines the patterns of distribution, species richness, and abundance of organisms in space and time with emphasis on animal communities, as well as ecology of insular biotas. Historical, ecological, geographical, and anthropological factors affecting these patterns are examined.
PREREQUISITES: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320. Students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program may take this course after completion of Biology 1310 and Biology 2220.
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*4540 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION BIOLOGY
This course examines fundamental concepts, ideas, and approaches used in conservation biology. Different philosophies and perspectives on setting priorities for preserving and man- aging biodiversity are also discussed.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2220. Students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program may take this course after completion of Biology 1310 and Biology 2220.
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*4620 WATERSHED ECOLOGY
The focus of this course is the study of watersheds, with emphasis on those found on Prince Edward Island. Lectures focus on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of streams and their surrounding riparian zones, and labs will include practical application of stream sampling methods.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 2220 or equivalent
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*4650 MARINE COMMUNITY ECOLOGY
This course constitutes a critical review of the dynamics and the rules of assembly that are distinctive to marine biological communities. Its main goal is the exploration of the organizing mechanisms behind spatial and temporal patterns exhibited by planktonic and benthic communities. Although the focus is on general principles and broad ideas, specific problems and practical work relate primarily to communities and habitats from Atlantic Canada.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 2220 and Biology 3910 or permission of instructor. Students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program may take this course after completion of Biology 1310 and Biology 2220.
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

4710 MOLECULAR BIOTECHNOLOGY
This course examines principles of gene manipulation, and the application of molecular biology in biotechnology. Recent developments in medicine, agriculture, industry and basic research are considered. Emphasis is placed on reviewing current literature in the field.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2230
Three hours lecture a week

*4720 BIOLOGY OF CANCER AND OTHER DISEASES
This course presents the basic principles of pathobiology with emphasis on specific candidate human diseases. The focus of the course is on aspects of the basic biochemistry and cell biology associated with certain disease paradigms. The majority of this course will focus on the biology of cancer. The biology of heart disease, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, and AIDS, as well as, other current topical disease paradigms will be presented.
Cross-level listed with Human Biology 8720.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2060 and Biology 2210
Three hours lecture a week

4750 BASIC AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY
This course presents the basic principles of immunology, its role and impact on specific mechanisms pertaining to human health. Topics include the immune system, antigen-antibody reactions, T & B cell biology and chemistry, cytokines, complement system, hypersensitivity, immune-physiology, cell mediated immunity, vaccines, AIDS and other immunodeficiencies, autoimmunity, transplant immunology and cancer.
PREREQUISITE: Biology 2060 or equivalent or permission of the instructor
Three hours lecture a week

*4850 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY
This course introduces the basic toxicological principles with respect to environmental toxicology, including a survey of major environmental pollutants and the statutes governing chemical release. Environmental effects on biota and methods of detection of environmental pollutants will be examined using endpoints at multiple levels of biological organization from biochemical to community.
PREREQUISITE: A combined average of at least 60% in Biology 1310-1320 and Chemistry 1110-1120. Students registered in the Bachelor of Wildlife Conservation Program may take this course after completion of Biology 1310 and Chemistry 1110-1120.
Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory a week

*4900 ADVANCED RESEARCH AND THESIS
This is a 12 semester-hour course required of all Honours students. It is intended to provide the student with an opportunity to design, carry out, evaluate and write up a research project in an approved scientific fashion, while working under the direction of a chief advisor assisted by an advisory committee. Normally the research will be done during the summer session preceding the student’s graduating year, and the thesis written during the final academic year. The objective of this course is to provide research experience for the student who intends to take up further studies at a post-graduate level or for the student who is planning on entering a career where research experience in Biology or related areas would be an asset.
PREREQUISITE: Acceptance to the Honours Program in Biology

4910 WILDLIFE CONSERVATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICUM
This course provides practical experience and leadership in an area of wildlife conservation or environmental management. Students work in teams with an environmental organization on a specific project or task for 6 weeks, compile research, and present their findings in a written report and oral presentation.
PREREQUISITES: Biology 3310. Biology majors in the Environmental Biology specialization may take this course with permission of the Coordinator of the BWC program or the Chair of Biology.
Three hours lecture or seminar a week
Semester hours of credit: 3

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